Reports : Istanbul Ticaret Odası

ITO

SOME QUOTES FROM ISTANBUL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE REPORT

P.97 :

« […] the sector of TV dramas and series is the driving force for some televisions broadcasting in domestic market. However, the importance of this sector is not limited to the television broadcasting. TV series production produce very important consequences for Turkey’s economic, social and cultural life in terms of value chain and labour force. One of these consequences is related to its interaction with the movie industry. These two sectors based on the same creative forces and the same labour and capital market develop side by side : involvement of experienced people of the movie sector in TV series enhances the quality of TV series ; moreover as stated by the people in the movie sector young people gain experience in TV series and then enter the movie sector with better qualification. »

Reports : TESEV

SOME QUOTES FROM SEVERAL TESEV REPORTS :

Media Content: The Regulatory Framework and Court Decisions (p.35)

« Article 25 of the constitution guarantees freedom of expression and protects individuals from state interference on expression of their opinions. Article 28 protects freedom of the press and imposes on the state a positive obligation to undertake the requisite measures to ensure the exercise of this freedom. The constitution guarantees the right to declare or disseminate opinions individually or collectively and to access and share information and opinions without state interference.

What lies beyond this liberal façade, however, is a framework where nationalism, statism and cultural conservatism emerge as the supreme values looming over individual rights. The exercise of fundamental freedoms is subject to compliance with; inter alia, national security, national unity and state secrets.

The constitution entrusts the state with the duty to make sure that citizens act and think in accordance with the ideals of Atatürk, the values of the nation and the morals of the family. Article 41 identifies the family as the ‘foundation of the Turkish society’ and tasks the state with taking measures to protect ‘the peace and welfare of the family’ and to protect children against all kinds of abuse and violence. Article 58 allots the

duty to protect the youth against abuse, exploitation and ‘bad habits’ such as alcoholism, drugs and gambling to the state, and as well as the responsibility to raise young people in accordance ‘the principles and revolutions of Atatürk.’ Making note of this ‘state- centrist approach,’ the Council of Europe (CoE) Commissioner for Human Rights pointed out the pervasive recognition ‘that the letter and spirit of the present Turkish Constitution represent a major obstacle to the effective protection of pluralism and freedom of expression’ (Hammarberg, 2011: para. 11). » […]

Executive Summary

Media policy in Turkey has shaped the media-state relationship since the establishment of the first newspaper in the late Ottoman period. While regulations were often employed as an effective disciplinary tool against the press in processes of state formation and modernization, opponent journalists have constantly been suppressed by state and non-state actors who claimed to act in the name of ‘state interests’.

The coup d’état in 1980 and the concomitant economic liberalisation changed the ownership structure of the media sector with the entry of new investors. Following the abolishment of state monopoly on broadcasting in the 1990s, big conglomerates expanding through vertical and horizontal mergers have dominated all fields of the media. The high concentrated market structure in the media was made possible due to the inadequacy of legal barriers to cross- mergers, as well as the lack of measures that would prevent media conglomerates from participating in public tenders in other sectors of the economy. The shortcomings of the regulatory framework to promote press freedom and diversity in the media has encouraged big corporations to regard themselves as legitimate political actors that can bargain with the government.

Media ownership was restructured following the economic crisis in 2001. Big media groups, which had investments in the financial and banking sectors, were particularly affected by the crisis; some being completely wiped out of the market, while others were seized by the state. Shortly after the Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi- AK Parti) came to power in 2002, the mainstream media was reconfigured ideologically as either ‘opponent’ or ‘proponent’ to the government.

Notwithstanding the limited positive effects of the EU accession process on media freedom, there are dozens of ECtHR judgments regarding freedom of expression and freedom of the press waiting to be executed by the Turkish state. Journalists who are powerless vis-à-vis the owners and political power are particularly affected by the political polarisation in the media. The structural obstacles to unionization and the lack of solidarity in the profession lead to labour exploitation, low quality content and violations of media ethics.

The lack of a strong pro-democracy social movement; the ideological conservatism of the judiciary; the institutional weakness of the parliament; and the lack of democracy within political parties render the government – and future governments – too powerful vis-à-vis the society and the media. On a positive note, however, there is a growing awareness on the need for social monitoring of the media. In the absence of a widely accepted and established self- regulatory framework, various non-governmental organizations and activist groups started to watch the media in order to expand the culture of diversity and to reduce discrimination, racism and hate speech.

Culture: (p.15-16)

« In recent years, Turkey has not just become more politically and economically active in the Middle East but culturally as well. The popularity of Turkish television series and holidaying in Turkey has become far more apparent. Thus the 2010 survey included questions about television and holidaying to understand this phenomenon.

Turkey as a destination has become more popular. Between 2007 and 2009, the number of tourists arriving from the surveyed countries increased from between 25% to 55% depending on the country.

Since 2009, Turkey has lifted visa requirements with Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria in both directions as well as for Saudi Arabian citizens. Indeed, comparing the number of tourists arriving from these four countries in the month of July 2010 to July 2009 reveals the impact of this policy: there was a 32% increase in the number of tourists from Jordan, an 88% increase from Lebanon, a 133% increase from Syria and a 59% increase from Saudi Arabia.

The results show that respondents saw Turkey as the most popular Middle Eastern destination. Indeed, Turkey was the most popular destination in Lebanon (51%), Iran (50%), Syria (43%), Jordan (41%), Palestine (41%) and Saudi Arabia (26%). Turkey’s nearest rival, Saudi Arabia, was the most popular destination amongst Egyptians only (32%). When asked about holidaying outside the region, France was the most popular destination but Turkey was the second most popular alongside Germany with 9%.

Turkish television series, dubbed in Arabic, are contributing to the visibililty of the country in the Middle East. Today the volume of these exports to the region is around $50 million per annum.

Indeed, television series have become an important part of Turkey’s soft power; the number of people who watch Turkish TV series in the region is very substantial and this has the potential to have a lasting effect on Turkey’s image. The survey results confirm this popularity: 78% of respondents had watched a Turkish TV series. The number of viewers was particularly high in Syria (85%) and Iraq (89%). Indeed, it’s not just the series themselves but Turkish celebrities that are popular in the Middle East: respondents could name no fewer than 15 Turkish TV series and 15 celebrities. Knowledge of Turkey’s television series and celebrities was particularly noteworthy in Iraq. »

 Television Broadcasting: (p.51-52)

« According to data from the Radio Television Supreme Council, there are currently 24 national, 15 regional and 209 local television enterprises on air. The categorization as national, regional and local broadcasting was done in consideration of RTÜK’s terrestrial broadcasting frequencies plan and the licenses granted under said plan. Yet, the developing technology and the widespread usage of satellite receiver systems continue to blur the distinction between local, regional and national broadcasting. For example, a television enterprise established in and broadcasting from the Black Sea region can have its broadcasts reach the national and even international audiences through satellite. Hence, although it may have a local broadcasting licence, it is not possible to regard such a television station as a local broadcaster. Even this change only demonstrates the need for more research and more discussion on the area of local broadcasting in Turkey.

On the other hand, in all of these scales, television is the media channel that has the highest access rate: it reaches more than 98% of those living in Turkey.The daily average spent watching television is 3 hours, going up to 7 hours for stay at housewifes. Cable TV broadcasting services are available in 21 cities, with approximately 1 million 275 thousand subscribers. Türksat A.Ş, the cable company that broadcasts public and private television enterprises, belongs to the state and is a monopoly. The company provides both infrastructure and broadcasting services; hence it also determines the channels that can broadcast on cable. A new draft regulation on the privatization of this service has been submitted to the public by RTÜK. The effective date of the regulation is as yet unknown.

Additionally, there are also two digital broadcasting platforms in the television broadcasting sector, one belonging to the Çukurova Group (Digiturk), and the other to the Doğan Group (D-Smart). DIGITURK has approximately 2 million 200 thousand subscribers, while D-Smart has 1 million 200 thousand subscribers. »

 Print & broadcast medias : (p.30-31)

« The media sector in Turkey is divided into aggregations. The biggest eight of the 15 media groups are Albayrak, Doğan, Çukurova,Ciner, Çalık, Feza, Doğuş and İhlas Groups. All major private television and radio stations, newspapers and periodicals belong to these groups. The Doğan Media Group and Merkez Group also have a monopoly over the distribution of the print media through Yay-Sat and MDP, respectively.

Established in 1980, Doğan Media Group is the largest media holding company in Turkey. The group has eight dailies: Hürriyet, Milliyet, Radikal, Posta, Vatan, Fanatik, Referans and Hürriyet Daily News. Hürriyet and Milliyet have a nationalist and statist position while Radikal has a social-democrat point of view. Posta is a tabloid newspaper and Referans was a financial newspaper that has recently been merged with Radikal. Doğan Media Group also owns the national TV channels Kanal D, Star and CNN Turk and radio channels Radio D, Slow Turk Radio and Radio Moda. The group also owns a digital platform called D-Smart, which includes many thematic and pay-per-view channels. Moreover, the group provides access for all TV channels on Türksat satellite. It has a stake in the cinema and advertising industries through D Productions. Channel Romania D is another investment of the group in Romania. The group also includes Doğan Burda Rizzoli (DBR), a joint venture with the German publishing house Burda and the Italian media corporation Rizzoli. Doğan runs its own news agency, DHA, publishing house, Doğan Kitap, and merchandising company, D&R. […]

Doğuş Media Group was founded in 1999. Its first channel was the news channel, NTV. In addition, the group collaborates with international brands such as CNBC, NBA, Billboard, Virgin, and National Geographic.

The Albayrak Group was established in 1952. Until 1982, it was active only in the construction sector. The group began publishing the daily Yeni Şafak in 1995. Having liberal and left-wing columnists who do not belong to the Islamic community the paper has emerged from, Yeni Şafak “offers a relatively broader perspective especially about the controversial issues.” Since 2007 it has been running TVNET, a news channel.

Ciner Holding was an active company in the automotive and energy sectors under the name of Park Holding. In 2002, the company entered the media sector. In September 2007 Ciner Publishing Holding was founded; it currently owns Habertürk.com, Habertürk Radyo, Habertürk TV, Ajans Habertürk and Gazete Habertürk. The company holds international TV and radio channels such as Bloomberg TV and Bloomberg HT Radyo. The Turkish language editions of Marie Claire and Maison, belong to Ciner Group as does the recently closed Newsweek, FHM, Food and Travel, GEO, and Mother and Baby.

Çukurova Holding currently publishes the Akşam, Güneş, Tercüman newspapers and Alem magazine and owns the Show and Sky Turk TV stations. Turkcell, the leader in the GSM industry, as well as Digiturk, which broadcasts the national football league matches, also belong to this group.

The Turkuvaz Group belongs to Çalık Holding. In December 2007 the group bought the Merkez Medya Group from Ciner Holding and became the proprietors of the newspapers Yeni Asır (Izmir), Sabah, Takvim, Günaydın and Pas Fotomac, the weeklies Bebeğim ve Biz, Sinema, Home Art, Yeni Aktuel and Gobal Enerji, as well as the television station ATV. […] »

« Turkey’s Image in the Arab World »written by Carnegie Middle East Center Director Paul Salem draws upon the survey to look at how Turkey is and should be responding to recent events in the region.

(p.6-7)
« […]Questions 20 and 21 indicate the influence of soft power. A full 78% of respondents in the Arab world and Iran report that they have watched Turkish soap operas. Indeed these TV programs have taken the region by storm, with Turkish TV stars becoming pop idols among young and old, men and women. The impact of watching hours of these Turkish soap operas cannot be underestimated as they have the effect of creating attachment, understanding, and affection for Turkish identity, culture, and values among wide regional publics. Like Egyptian TV and cinema created a prominent cultural place for Egypt in previous decades, Turkish television has made similar inroads in Arab (and Iranian) popular culture. This has been complemented by a wave of tourism to Turkey in which Arabs and Iranians from various classes and walks of life have visited Turkey and become familiar and attached to its towns and cities, history and monuments, culture and people. Turkey is identified in the survey as the most popular tourist destination (35% put it as their first choice; followed by 19% for Saudi Arabia; and 13% for Lebanon.)[…] »

« Challenges to Turkey’s Soft Power in the Middle East »written by the Dean of Graduate School of Sciences in METU Meliha Benli Altunışık questions how Turkey exercises its soft power in the Middle East, an issue that has become all the more relevant as a result of the Arab Spring.

Turkey’s attractiveness : (p.2)
 » […] Finally, in recent years Turkey has become a source of attraction because of its cultural products. Since 2004 Turkish TV series have become quite popular in the Arab world. 78 percent of the respondents said yes to the question of whether they have ever watched a Turkish TV series in the TESEV poll. The popularity of these series has led to an increase in the numbers of visitors to Turkey from the Arab countries. The increase in human-tohuman interaction has facilitated learning from each other and started to shape images of the “other” in more positive ways.[…] »

 

Reports : ISTANBUL 2010 CULTURAL INVENTORY

SOME QUOTES FROM ISTANBUL 2010 CULTURAL INVENTORY REPORT

P.27-29 :

« Türkiye‟de TV mecrası, tüm reklam mecraları arasında ilk sıradadır ve %50‟yi aĢan payla öncüdür74. Bu durum, Türkiye‟de TV izleme alıĢkanlıkları ile doğrudan iliĢkilidir. TUIK‟e göre Türkiye‟de tüketicilerin kültüre ayırdıkları toplam zamanlarının %87‟si televizyon seyretmekle geçmektedir. Reklam alan yapım türleri arasında, yerli dizileri ve haberleri yakın takipte yerli sinema baĢı çekmektedir. Dizi filmler, haberleri takiben, TV‟de en çok seyredilen program türüdür.

Rek-lam-lar!

Özellikle 2000 sonrasında, özel televizyonculuğun medya sektöründe baĢat duruma geçmesinde ve sektörün en önemli geliri olan reklamları çekmede, “yerli diziler” önemli role sahiptir. Dizi üretimi, kısa sürede özel televizyon kanallarının dıĢında geliĢen bir yan sanayi olarak hızla büyürken, bugün Türkiye‟de TV‟ler, reklam ve dizi film sektörü arasında bir köprü vazifesi görmektedir. Bu durum dizi sektörünü, bir taraftan reklam verene bağlı ve dolayısıyla ekonomik krizlere son derece duyarlı hale getirmektedir. Bu nedenle reklam ve sponsorluk gelirleriyle birlikte yıllık en az 1 milyar YTL dolayında olan dizi film ekonomisinde, 2008 ekonomik krizinden kaynaklanan %30‟luk bir küçülme gerçekleĢmiĢtir.

Dizi Film Bir Yatırım Alanı mı?

Daha önce söz edildiği üzere, dizi filmler TV kanalları tarafından finanse edilmektedir. Bununla birlikte, bir sezon dahi süreceği garanti olmayan bir dizi film yapımı için gerekli olan baĢlangıç maliyeti yüz binlerce doları bulabilmektedir. Ġzlenme oranları yeterince yüksek olmayan diziler reklam gelirinden yoksun kalmakta ve yayından kaldırılabilmektedir. “Bir dizi için 250–300 bin lirayı ön hazırlıkta AR-GE tarafında riske atmamıĢ bir müĢteri (TV kanalı) profilinin olduğu ve bunlardan sadece 4–5 tane olduğu bir ortamda kimse dönüp üretim altyapısına büyük yatırım yapmak istememektedir.” Dizinin TV kanalındaki sürekliliğini garantilemeyen yapımcılar, finansal geleceklerini planlayamamakta, dolayısıyla sektörel altyapıyı geliĢtirmek üzere milyonlarca dolarlık yatırım gerçekleĢtirmeye yönelik harekete geçememektedirler. Bu sorun, film üretimimizin kurumsallaĢma sürecindeki temel kilit noktalarından biri olarak görülebilir.

Bir Ġhraç Ürünü Olarak Yerli Diziler

Son yıllarda, özellikle Ortadoğu ülkelerinde yerli dizilerimize karĢı büyük bir ilgi olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu ilgi, yerli dizilerin bir ihracat sektörü olması yönündeki yasal düzenlemeleri beraberinde getirmiĢtir. Bu düzenlemeler temel olarak, yapımcılara ihracat desteklerinden faydalanacakları bir mekanizmanın oluĢturulması yönündedir. Böylece bir taraftan ihracat gerçekleĢtirilirken, bir taraftan dizi film sektörünün ülke ihracatımıza yaratacağı katma değer ve oluĢturacağı etki gözlenecektir.

Bu durumu birkaç nokta ile açıklamak gerekirse; dizi ihracatının ilk olarak, dizilerde görülen mekân ve yerli ürünlere karĢı bir talep doğuracağı görülecektir. Dünyadaki örneklerin de bu yönde olduğu izlenmiĢtir. Turizmi ve çeĢitli ürünlerin ihracatını tetikleyecek olan bu talep, sadece sektörde değil, ülke ekonomisinde de önemli bir iyileĢmeyi beraberinde getirecektir.

Yakın bir örnek vermek gerekirse, 2010 yılının Mayıs ayında Arap ülkelerinden 105.000 turist Türkiye‟yi ziyaret etmiĢtir. Bu rakam geçen yıl aynı döneme nazaran %33‟lük bir büyümeye iĢaret etmektedir. Bu büyümede Arap ülkelerinde yayınlanan “GümüĢ” dizisinin önemli bir payı var. Daha önceki yıllarda Ġstanbul‟daki camileri görmeye gelen Arap turistler, Ģimdilerde dizi filmlerdeki mekânları görmek, oyunculara rastlamak peĢindedir.

Diziler yalnızca yabancı turizmi değil, yerli turizmi de harekete geçirmektedir. GeçmiĢ yıllardaki örneklerinde doğuda çekilen dizilerin, bölgeye yönelik kayda değer bir merak oluĢturduğu bilinmektedir.

Dizi filmlerin ihracatının desteklendiği bu süreçte, telif haklarıyla ilgili sıkıntıların giderilmesi büyük önem taĢımaktadır (bkz. Mevzuat Yapısı).

Dizi Setlerindeki ÇalıĢma KoĢulları Protesto Ediliyor…

TV kanallarının reklam gelirlerini artırmak amacıyla, yapımcılara “daha uzun” bölümler çekmeleri yönündeki talebi, dizi bölümlerinin haftada 90 dakikayı bulmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu durum, tüm set çalıĢanları için “daha uzun” çalıĢma saatleri anlamına gelmektedir. Dizi film üretim sürecinde çalıĢma Ģartlarının sosyal haklar, fiziksel koĢullar vb. açılardan oldukça ağır olduğu göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, bu durum açıkça, mevcut sorunların daha da büyümesi anlamına gelmektedir. Bu çalıĢma koĢulları hem hikâyelerin hem de ortaya çıkan ürünün kalitesini düĢürmektedir. Özellikle, dizi film ihracatı için yapılan yasal düzenlemelerle birlikte düĢünüldüğünde, temelde mevzuattan kaynaklanan bu sorun, ciddi bir çeliĢkiyi ortaya koymaktadır.

Giderek artan dizi süreleri, 24 Aralık 2010‟da Taksim‟de tüm dizi setlerindeki çalıĢanların katılımıyla gerçekleĢen “Yerli Dizi Yersiz Uzun” eyleminde protesto edilmiĢtir87. Örgütlenme geleneği olmayan film endüstrisinde, sadece bir protestodan ibaret olarak algılanmaması gereken bu eylem, çalıĢanların sosyal haklarını aramaları anlamında önemli ve olumlu bir geliĢmedir. » […]


Reports : RATEM

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SOME QUOTES FROM RATEM REPORT

Televizyon

– 2009 ylna göre toplam televizyon reklam yatrmlar içindeki dalmda 2010 ylnda bölgesel televizyon kanallar dnda tüm yayn lisans türleri alannda reklam girdisi art olmutur. Bir önceki yla göre televizyon lisans türlerinin tümünde ortalama % 43 bir art olmasna karn, bölgesel televizyon reklam yatrmlarnda % 66.92 gibi çok yüksek bir oranla düüyaanmtr.

– 24 ulusal televizyon 1 milyar 611 milyon TL’nin üzerinde bir reklam yatrmn paylarken, 15 bölgesel televizyon 2.36 milyon TL’lik bir pazar payn paylamakta ve yine 210 yerel televizyon kanal 8.73 milyon TL’lik bir reklam yatrmn almaktadr.

– Televizyon yayncl pazarnda ulusal kanallarn baskn bir etkinlii bulunmaktadr. 24 ulusal kanaln toplam televizyon reklam yatrmlar içindeki pay geçen yla göre yükselerek % 88.39’a ulamtr. Buna karlk 15 bölgesel ve 210 yerel yaynn toplam televizyon reklam pay 0.61’e gerilemitir. Bir önceki yl bu pay % 1.20 seviyesindeydi.

– Küresel televizyon reklam yatrmlar bakmndan ABD 50 milyar dolarn üzerinde ürettii gelirle dier ülkelerle kyaslanamayacak bir düzeye sahip bulunuyor. Almanya, Fransa, ngiltere ve talya gibi ülkeler 4 milyar ABD dolarnn üstünde reklam yatrmlaryla öne çkan Avrupa ülkeleri. Türkiye ise 932 milyon dolar televizyon reklam yatrmlarna sahip. Kii ba televizyon reklam yatrm bakmndan ABD, Japonya, Avustralya, talya gibi ülkeler öne çbarken, ngiltere, Fransa ve Almanya gibi ülkelerde 60 ABD dolarnn üstünde bir rakam olumakta, Türkiye’nin TV reklam yatrmlar kii bana 12.85 olarak gerçeklemektedir.

Reports : KEA


SOME QUOTES FROM KEA REPORTS

« Very few economic sectors have revealed as much economic potential in China and the EU as the cultural and creative industries (CCIs) have over the past few years. China is leading Asia in the development of a creative economy. Its cultural sector records € 50.32 billion of value added, contributes to 2.45% of Chinese GDP, registering growth 6.4% higher than growth of the general economy. European CCIs are worth 2.6% of the EU’s GDP and generate a turnover of more than € 654 billion (2003), much more than that generated by the car manufacturing industry (€ 271 billion in 2001) and by ICT manufacturers (€ 541 billion in 2003).

The insufficient enforcement of IPR, the lack of IP understanding as a tool to foster trade transactions, together with the size of the cultural operators – SMEs with little access to foreign markets – as well as the lack of political awareness on the economic importance of the creative industries, are the main structural reasons for insufficient trade relationships between Europe and China in the cultural and creative sectors.

Nevertheless CCIs are important drivers of innovation in other industries and societies. They contribute to tourism and the development of the ICT sector, which is hungry for content. Culture also contributes to social cohesion. The development of cultural industries and creativity is intrinsically linked with brand strategies. Today, competitiveness rests on the ability to create emotional ties with consumers that go beyond the price or the functionality of products. Aesthetic, meaning, social significance are key aspects of the experience economy. Culture, creative industries and intellectual property are key drivers of this intangible economy. » […]

« It therefore becomes an imperative for industry to meet and to create new kinds of demand that are not based merely on the functionality of a product but are instead rooted in individual and collective aspiration. In this new paradigm, marketing and services are as important as production. This requires creative skills and thoughts as productivity gains at manufacturing level are no longer sufficient to establish a competitive advantage. Culture-based creativity is a powerful means of overturning norms and conventions with a view to standing out amid intense economic competition. Creative people and artists are key because they develop ideas, metaphors and messages which help to drive social networking and experiences. » […]

Creativity is a process continuously shaped and stimulated (or constrained) by human, social, cultural and institutional factors. It is proposed to establish a Creativity Index (with a set of 32 indicators) whose aim is to assess the creative environment in EU Member States and to enable the development of a creative ecology in Europe through art and culture. » […]

« The study on the contribution of culture to creativity was prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture). It demonstrates the impact of culture and art on creativity, a major factor of economic growth and a vector of social and technological innovation.

The assignment lasted 11 months between May 2008 and April 2009. It was managed by KEA European Affairs (KEA) a Brussels based consultancy which specialises in the cultural, media and entertainment sectors. For this assignment KEA set up a consortium composed of Burns Owens Partnership (BOP) and Professor Roberto Travaglini. »

The European Creativity Index (ECI) is a new statistical framework for illustrating and measuring the interplay of various factors that contribute to the growth of creativity in the European Union. As other indicators it measures the performance of a phenomenon using a set of indicators which highlight some of the key features of that phenomenon. It is inspired by existing indexes concerning creativity, innovation and economic performance but introduces elements that are more specifically related to arts and culture.

A focus on the cultural dimension of creativity implies taking into consideration a number of factors, many of which are usually not included in other indexes. These include, but are not limited to: education in art schools, cultural employment, cultural offering, cultural participation, technology penetration, regulatory and financial support to creation, economic contribution of creative industries. We group these indicators in six pillars of creativity :

Openness and diversity ; Social environment ; Human capital ; Creative outputs ; Technology ; Institutional environment

[…] « The interdependence between the cultural & creative sector and ICT

Broadband penetration has grown exponentially over the last years and broadband uptake is continuing. The diffusion of wireless Internet connections and the mass adoption of 3G mobile phones have turned into a reality the promise of being connected “anywhere, anytime”. The switch-over from analogue to digital broadcasting has already happened (for radio) or is foreseen for the years to come (for TV).[…]

The growth of creative content and the expansion of the ICT sector are the two sides of a same coin.

Technology and in particular the growing diffusion and importance of the Internet is the major driver for growth in the creative media and Internet industry (provided the issue of piracy is properly addressed). The impact on media consumption has been huge in recent years and it will be the major factor for the sector in the future. At the same time creative content is a key driver for ICT uptake. The consultancy firm PriceWaterhouseCoopers estimates that spending on ICT-related content will account for 12% of total increase in global entertainment and media spending until 2009.[…]

Creative hubs and the contribution of culture and creativity to local development

Firstly, the characteristics of cultural and creative goods are that they cater essentially for a local audience, its languages and cultures. This makes it difficult for the production of cultural goods and services to shift to other continents. Therefore off-shoring is less developed than in other sectors of the economy (even at manufacturing level). Job losses in the cultural & creative sector tend to be the result of restructuring, for example due to new forms of distribution and the emergence of new business models. Because of this characteristic (non-delocalisation), and given that Europe is a major producer of intellectual property assets in the world, it would be well advised to try and make the most out of this potential to boost its economy.

Secondly, there is a competitive race to attract talent and creators (“the creative class”) to localised environments supporting the clustering of creativity and innovation skills. Europe risks experiencing a talent drain in sectors such as video games and cinema attracted abroad by better conditions, essentially financial.

Moreover, culture and innovation play a crucial role in helping regions attract investment, creative talents and tourism. Paradoxically, whereas we are living at a time where information technologies have abolished distance and time constraints, “physical location” and the “socialisation” factor remain decisive for economic success. The “location market” is a reality. Cities and regions are competing to attract foreign direct investment and creative talents. In order to succeed they need to attach several new strings to their bows: diversified cultural offerings, quality of life and life style. Culture has become an important soft location factor and a key factor for boosting local and regional attractiveness. » […]

Reports : RTÜK

 
SOME QUOTES FROM RTÜK REPORTS
(RADIO AND TELEVISION SUPREME COUNCIL)

« Radyo ve Televizyon Üst Kurulu özürlü vatandaşların televizyon izleme eğilimlerini belirlemeye yönelik olarak, örneklemi Türkiye genelini kapsayan bir kamuoyu araştırması yaptı.

11-27 Eylül 2007 tarihleri arasında, Türkiye genelini temsilen 20 ilde 15 ve daha yukarı yaştaki toplam 2488 özürlü/engelli kişinin katılımıyla gerçekleştirilen “Özürlü Vatandaşların Televizyon İzleme Eğilimleri Araştırması” ile araştırmaya katılan 78 kişiyle yapılan derinlemesine mülakat sonuçlarına göre, özürlüler hafta içi günlerde ortalama 4.3 saat televizyon izliyor/dinliyor. Özürlü vatandaşlarımız tarafından en çok izlenen/dinlenen kanallar, Kanal D (% 54), Show TV (% 50,3), ATV (%50), TRT Kanalları (%42,1), Star (%37,3) ve Samanyolu (% 21) olarak sıralanmakta. TRT’nin beğenilme nedenlerinin başında yayınlarının kaliteli olması ve haber programlarının iyi olması gelmekte. Kanal D, ATV ve Show TV’nin beğenilme ratingini yükselten ise kanallarında yayınlanan diziler. »

Hafta içi 3 saat olan televizyon izleme süresi %20.5’e, 2 saatlik TV izleme oranı ise %17.2’ye çıkmıştır.

– Hafta içi kadınlar 4,5 saat, erkekler ise 4,1 saat TV izlemektedirler.
– Hafta içi en çok TV izleyen yaş grubunun 41+ olduğu ve 4,5 saate ulaştığı görülmektedir.
– Hafta içi evliler 4,4 saat ile en çok TV izleyen grubu oluşturmaktadır.
– Eğitim düzeyi azaldıkça TV izleme oranının arttığı görülmektedir.
– Hafta içi emekli ve işsizlerin 5 saat TV izlediği görülmekte, bu grubu ev hanımı ve çiftçiler takip etmektedir.
– Hafta içi 5,2 saat ile Akdeniz Bölgesinin en çok TV izleyen bölge olduğu görülmektedir.
– Hafta içi TV izleme saatleri incelendiğinde %70,9 ile 18:01-21:00 saatlerinin en çok izlenen saatler, %15 oranı ile 12:01-15:00 saatlerinin ise en az izlenen saatler olduğu gözlenmektedir.
– Hafta sonu TV izleme sürelerine bakıldığında 6 saatlik TV izleme süresinin %15,8’i, 4 saatlik TV izleme süresinin %15,7’yi oluşturduğu görülmektedir.
– Hafta sonu erkekler 4,6 saat, kadınlar ise 4,5 saat TV izlemektedirler.
– Hafta sonu evlilerin 4,6 saat TV izlediği görülmektedir.
– Hafta sonu 5,5 saat ile Akdeniz Bölgesi en çok TV izleyen bölgeyi oluştururken, Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi 4 saat ile en az TV izleyen bölgedir.
– Hafta sonu TV izleme saatleri incelendiğinde % 68,7 ile 18:01-21:00 saatlerinin en çok izlenen, % 14,8 oranı ile 09:01-12:00 saatlerinin ise en az izlenen saatler olduğu gözlenmiştir.
– Televizyon programlarının izlenme sıklığı verilerine bakıldığında %93,7 ile haberler, %86,2 ile yerli diziler ve %61,8 ile dini programlar sıralanmaktadır.
– Televizyonlarda yayınlanması istenmeyen program türleri sıralaması şu şekildedir: %63 ile kadın kuşak-izdivaç programları, %50,3 ile magazin programları ve %22,7 ile spor programlarıdır.
– Araştırmada deneklerin %60,3’nün reklamları gördüğünde kanal değiştirdiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
– Araştırmaya katılan deneklerin iletişim araçlarına duydukları güven düzeyi incelendiğinde %47,1 ile en çok radyoya güvendikleri, %42,2 ile ise en az televizyona güvendikleri görülmektedir. İnternete olan güven düzeyinde artış olduğu da gözlenmektedir.

 

p.41-42

[…] Televizyon dizileri, günümüzde Türk televizyonlarında en çok rastlanılan ve televizyon ile en çok bağdaĢtırılan tür olarak görülmektedir. Mutlu‟ya göre, bu türün alt kategorileri, genellikle ana karakterlerin mesleklerine göre ayrıĢabilir. Bu duruma, polisiye ve dedektif dizileri, avukat veya doktorlar üzerine kurulu olan diziler örnek verilebilir. Bunlar içerisinde en popüler olanı da polisiye türünde olanlardır.

Mutlu‟nun da belirttiği gibi, televizyon dizileri ve seriyaller, televizyonun en ayırt edici türleridir. Dizi ve seriyaller birbirinden farklı türler olarak ortaya çıkmıĢlardır. Diziler, ortak karakterlerin ve genellikle ortak mekânların kullanıldığı, anlatılan hikâyenin genellikle aynı bölüm içerisinde çözüme kavuĢtuğu, televizyon oyunlarına benzeyen bir yapıya sahiptir. Oysa seriyaller, merak unsuruna dayalı, devamı izleyici merak ettirilerek sağlanan bir program türüdür. Seriyalleri oluĢturan bölümlerin her birinde, daha büyük bir hikâyenin parçaları verilmektedir. Dolayısıyla, ana bir olay dizisi sonucunda tamamlanan hikâyenin içinde aynı zamanda, yan olaylar da yer almakta, bu nedenle seriyaller çok uzun sürmektedir. Ġçinde drama barındıran bu tür izleyicide bağımlılık da yaratır. Seriyal ne kadar uzun sürerse, o kadar izleme alıĢkanlığı yaratır. Bu izleme alıĢkanlığı sürdüğü müddetçe dizinin baĢarı ölçüsü artmaktadı.

Günümüzde ise dizi ve seriyal arasındaki sözü geçen anlatı farklılıkları bulunmamaktadır. Her iki tür de anlatı yapısı olarak birbirlerinin özelliklerini göstermektedir. Ġzleyicinin sonraki bölümü izlemek için merakta bırakılması her iki tür için de ortak bir özellik olarak göze çarpar. Televizyon dramasında öykünün eksenindeki iliĢki ağı, karakterler ve formata bağlı olarak değiĢen alt türlerden söz edilebilir. Bu alt türler arasında dedektif dizileri, polisiyeler, hastane melodramları, bilim kurgu ve fantezi diziler, televizyon filmleri, soap operalar ya da pembe diziler ve durum komedileri sayılabilir. […]

See also : 

Reports : ISMMMO

SOME QUOTES FROM ISMMMO REPORTS : 

« Ekranlar canlı, ilgi büyük ama her üç diziden biri krize kurban gitti ve sektör yüzde 30 küçüldü. 2008 yılında 1 mil- yar TL’lik büyüklük konuşulurken 2010 Mayıs’ın da değer 700 milyon TL’ye geriledi ve 50 bin kişi işini kaybetti.

Son dönem görülen yüksek reytingler ve ilgiye rağmen, Türk dizi sektörünün global krizin etkilerini üzerinden tam ata- madığı ortaya çıktı. İstanbul Serbest Muhasebeci Mali Müşavirler Odası’nın yaptığı “Dizi Ekonomisi – Mayıs 2010” araştır- masına göre, sektörün tüm hareketliliğine rağmen yine İSMMMO’nun Eylül 2008 verilerine göre önemli oranda küçüldüğü ortaya çıktı.

İSMMMO’nun ‘Dizi Ekonomisi- Mayıs 2010’ araştırmasına göre; halen 7 ulusal kanalda, 42 yerli dizi yayınlanıyor. Oysa 2008 saptamalarına göre, 11 ulusal kanalda 63 yerli dizi yayınlanıyordu.

Araştırmada, yeni adı Bloomberg olan Kanal 1, Show Tv, Kanal 7 gibi birçok kanalın dizi yarışından koptuğu ortaya çıktı.

Küçülmenin maddi boyutlarını ise rakamlar net bir şekilde sergiliyor. Buna göre; 2005-2008 yıllarında adeta ‘patla- ma’ yaşayan dizi ekonomisi, İSMMMO’nun Eylül 2008’de yaptığı araştırmaya göre 1 milyar TL’lik bir ekonomik güce eriş- mişti. Ancak son yapılan araştırmaya göre, sektörün yüzde 30 oranında küçüldüğü ve dizi ekonomisinin 700 milyon TL’ye gerilediği ortaya çıktı. Kriz öncesinde sektörde çalışan sayısı 150 bin kişiyi bulurken, yaşanan küçülmeyle birlikte sektörde set işçisinden, senaristine, çaycısından, figüranına 50 bin kişinin de işini kaybettiği belirtiliyor. Dizi sektörünün 100 bin civa- rında istihdam sağladığı biliniyor.

Geçen yıl yaşanan krizle birlikte kanallar, yapımcı şirketlere ödedikleri ücretlerde yüzde 30 ila 50 oranında değişen indirimler yaptı. İşlerini kaybetmek istemeyen yapımcıların büyük çoğunluğu bunu kabul etti. Yapımcılar da aynı şeyi oyun- cular ve teknik ekipten talep edince sektördeki ücretler de ortalama yüzde 40 oranında düştü. Halen kriz öncesi seviyele- re gelinebilmiş değil. » […]

 

« Yerli diziler bu sezona da damgasını vuracak. 11 ulusal kanalda bu sezon 20’si yeni 63 yerli dizi yayınlanıyor. Reyting rekorları kıran dizilerin hem yapımcıları, hem de bu dizileri yayınlayan kanallar kazanıyor. İstanbul Serbest Muhasebeci Mali Müşavirler Odası’nın (İSMMMO) “Dizi Ekonomisi” araştırmasına göre, bölüm başına maliyetleri 100 ila 300 bin YTL arasında değişen diziler, reklam ve sponsorluk gelirleriyle birlikte yaklaşık 1 milyar YTL’lik bir ekonomi ortaya çıkarıyor. » […]

 

Cf. also : 

 

Reports : TUIK

SOME QUOTES FROM TUIK REPORTS

There are 12 parts in the publication: cultural heritages, archives, libraries, newspapers, periodicals and books, art galleries, theaters, operas and ballets, orchestra, choir, group, cinemas, cultural and scientific activities, participation in and time spent on cultural activities and religion. Published in the cultural heritage in museums, the current work, the museum and the ruins of public information such as number of visitors and receipts are included. Archives section, research related to open archives to statistics are available. Libraries section; National Library, university libraries, public libraries, formal and non-formal education institutions belonging to the library information is available. In the print media, newspapers and magazines, according to the number of broadcast area, circulation, such as the frequency of publication statistics are also included. Publications also, art galleries, theater, opera and ballet and cinema with the information to the cultural and scientific activities, and participation in cultural activities and religious issues of time allocated to the various statistics are included.
Data on the number of enterprises, employment and payments, number of hours worked by employees, total purchases of good services, turnover, production value, value-added at factor costs, change in stocks, fixed-capital investments and sales given by Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community. (NACE Rev.1.1) and Classification of Statistical Reginal Units (SRE).
This publication, broadcasting institutions data, economic activities, number of persons engaged, size of broadcasting, current expenditures, revenues of institution, type of programmes, broadcasting times of programme etc. related to institutions and values for variables such as production value and value added data are presented to use.
In this publication, there is information about participation level, participation frequency in cultural activities by sex and socio-economic characteristics, average time spent for cultural activities are given by main cultural activities. In addition, internet use, and entertainment activities which are closely related to cultural activities are given as separate parts in the publication.

Reports : DCMS


SOME QUOTES FROM DCMS REPORTS

These are the most recent statistics for the Creative Industries, published December 2011:

  • creative industries contributed 2.9% of the UK’s Gross Value Added in 2009, this is an increase from 2.8% in 2008
  • 1.5 million people are employed in the creative industries or in creative roles in other industries, 5.1% of the UK’s employment
  • exports of services by the creative industries accounted for 10.6% of the UK’s exports of services
  • there were an estimated 106,700 businesses in the creative industries on the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR) in 2011, this represents 5.1% of all companies on the IDBR

Rapports : UNCTAD (CNUCED)


SOME QUOTES FROM UNCTAD REPORTS

[…] « D´après le rapport, les exportations mondiales de biens et services créatifs – produits d´art et d´artisanat, audiovisuel, livres, création industrielle, films, musique, nouveaux médias, information écrite, arts plastiques et arts du spectacle et services créatifs – ont plus que doublé entre 2002 et 2008. Leur valeur totale s´est chiffrée à 592 milliards de dollars É. U. en 2008 et le taux de croissance de ce secteur au cours des six dernières années a été de 14 % en moyenne.

Par ailleurs, les industries créatives présentent un potentiel considérable pour les pays en développement qui cherchent à diversifier leur économie et à participer à l´un des secteurs les plus dynamiques du commerce mondial. Le marché mondial avait déjà été stimulé par l´essor du commerce Sud-Sud de produits créatifs avant la récession. Les exportations de biens créatifs du Sud vers les autres pays du monde ont atteint 176 milliards de dollars É. U. en 2008, soit 43 % du commerce total dans ce secteur.

Le rapport note que, lorsque la production, la vente et le commerce de biens créatifs sont suffisamment promus par les gouvernements et des partenariats public-privé, ils peuvent contribuer à l´élargissement de l´économie des pays en développement, à la création d´une grande variété d´emplois et à la stimulation de l´innovation. L´établissement d´une « relation créative » permettant d´attirer et d´associer investisseurs, technologie et entreprises passe par la mise en place d´outils institutionnels et réglementaires appropriés. » […]

 

Voir aussi : 

Rapports : Union Européenne

SOME QUOTES FROM SEVERAL EU REPORTS

« «Europe créative», nouveau programme-cadre pour les secteurs de la culture et de la création relevant du cadre financier pluriannuel (CFP) 2014-2020, réunira les actuels programmes Culture, MEDIA et MEDIA Mundus dans un cadre commun et établira une toute nouvelle facilité visant à améliorer l’accès au financement. […]

 

[…] « Les industries culturelles et créatives se caractérisent par une nature duale (qui les distingue de toute autre industrie), à la fois économique, par leur contribution en termes d’emploi, de croissance et de création de richesses, mais avant tout culturelle, par leurs activités qui contribuent à l’épanouissement et à l’intégration sociale et culturelle des citoyens. En encourageant la créativité et en innovant pour améliorer les processus de distribution et de production, ces industries jouent, dans l’Union européenne, un rôle majeur dans la promotion de la diversité culturelle et linguistique, du pluralisme, de la cohésion sociale et territoriale mais aussi dans la démocratisation de l’accès à la culture et la promotion du dialogue interculturel. À ce titre, rémunérer de manière juste la création grâce aux droits de propriété intellectuelle est une condition sine qua non à la préservation de la diversité culturelle européenne.

Aussi faut-il faciliter la mobilité et l’attractivité. En effet, promouvoir la mobilité des artistes, des praticiens de la culture et des œuvres est un moyen d’aider les industries culturelles et créatives européennes à passer notamment de l’échelon local à l’échelon national. Pour ce faire, il est nécessaire de s’employer à mettre en place des partenariats équilibrés avec les professionnels européens sur la base de mécanismes de concertation régulière pour suivre un secteur en évolution rapide, lever les freins à la mobilité et assurer une veille sur les outils développés à tous les niveaux. » […]

Extrait d’une interview de Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid du 14 février 2011 :

[…] « Ces industries représentent plus de 600 milliards d’euros de chiffre d’affaire par an, soit 2,6% du PIB, explique Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid, « et elles ne sont pas en récession. Aujourd’hui en Europe, et malgré la crise, les industries culturelles sont en croissance, en particulier, les industries du luxe. »

Ces industries très diverses jouissent d’un énorme potentiel, renforcé par les possibilités de diffusion qu’offre l’ère numérique. Mais ce potentiel n’est pas encore pleinement exploité, car ces industries « sont un peu trop cantonnées dans leurs états membres », estime la députée.

L’union européenne peut aider à surmonter ces obstacles, par exemple grâce aux programmes comme MEDIA (financement pour l’industrie audiovisuelle) ou le Prix Lux du Parlement européen. » […]

 


 

 

[…] « As regards audiovisual policy, the Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) adopted a regulation in November 2009 that lifted the time restrictions for private broadcasters and allowed 24-hour broadcasting in languages other than Turkish. The Regulation also removed the subtitle/consecutive translation requirement, thus opening the way for live broadcasts. Limitations as regards children’s and language teaching programmes have also been lifted. As a consequence, the number of radio stations and TV channels broadcasting in languages other than Turkish has increased to 15 (5 TV channels and 10 radio stations), all of them broadcasting regionally.

The consultation forum with broadcasters continued, although on an irregular basis. RTÜK has reinforced its monitoring capacity by recruiting new staff who speak Kırmanji and Zaza. For the moment however, the monitoring of all local TV and radio broadcasts are carried out with the contributions of the monitoring units of the local police in line with a protocol that was first signed in 1998 and amended in 2006.

TRT became a shareholder in Euronews, whose Turkish service has been on air since January 2010, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Euronews in Turkish is distributed all over Turkey by TRT and is available on all distribution networks. In addition, TRT 2 is using Euronews programmes and the Turkish internet service also features Euronews programmes on demand.

In terms of alignment with the acquis, however, there has been no development. Media legislation is not yet aligned with the Audiovisual Media Services Directive. The draft law aiming to implement the directive was submitted to parliament in May 2010. RTÜK has not yet reallocated frequencies and the broadcasters have continued to use terrestrial frequencies on a de facto basis. The licensing deadlock continues to damage the broadcasting industry and also causes technical difficulties, such as significant interference, including cross-border, on both telecommunication systems and television and radio broadcasts. Switchover to digital would solve this problem, since Turkey adopted a roadmap on digital switchover in 2009, in line with the objective set by the European Commission for EU Member States.

The interpretation of certain articles of the broadcasting law and the sanctions imposed on broadcasters raised concerns. In June, RTÜK imposed a broadcasting ban on a channel for the words of a writer who spoke about the Armenian issue and which according to the regulator exceeded the limits of criticism. » […]

[…] « Proclamée en 1923, la République de Turquie, malgré une brève interruption entre 1960 et 1961, s’est apparentée à une démocratie parlementaire jusqu’en 1980, date à laquelle l’armée a pris le pouvoir. Le rétablissement d’un gouvernement civil en 1983 a permis le retour à la démocratie.

Depuis 1983 et la renaissance de la vie politique, plusieurs partis ou coalitions se sont succédé à la tête de l’exécutif.

En 1983, le Parti de la Mère Patrie (ANAP) remporte les premières élections libres depuis la prise de pouvoir par les militaires. Il s’agit d’un parti conservateur.

En octobre 1991, six mois après la fin de la guerre du Golfe à laquelle la Turquie a activement participé, le Parti de la Voie Juste (DYP) remporte les élections mais son leader, Soliman Demirel, est contraint de s’allier avec le Parti Populaire Social Démocrate (SHP). On a parlé là encore d’alliance conservatrice. Les bénéfices tirés de la guerre du Golfe ont permis d’intensifier pendant cette période la lutte contre le PKK (Parti des travailleurs kurdes) et de contrecarrer pour un temps les projets d’indépendance de la minorité kurde.

En juin 1993, le Premier ministre Soliman Demirel succède à Turgut Ozal à la présidence de la République de Turquie. Ce bouleversement à la tête de l’exécutif coïncide avec la montée en puissance du Parti Fondamentaliste Islamique (Refah) qui n’a de cesse de faire la preuve de sa crédibilité électorale entre 1993 et 1995, contraignant même le parti au pouvoir (DYP) à s’allier avec le parti de centre droit ANAP afin de barrer le passage aux islamistes lors des élections de décembre 1995.

Les mésententes entre les dirigeants des deux partis au pouvoir conduisent dès 1996 à la dissolution de l’alliance et à la constitution d’une nouvelle coalition entre le DYP et les islamistes du Refah. Necmettin Erbakan devient chef du gouvernement en juin 1996. Souffrant d’une relative méfiance de l’opinion et du manque d’appui des militaires du Conseil national de sécurité à l’influence politique et aux aspirations laïques affirmées, le Refah a eu le plus grand mal à mettre en application sa politique de repli vis-à-vis de l’OTAN et de l’Union européenne, en rupture avec les engagements pro-européens des gouvernements précédents.

Après trois années d’instabilité politique relative au cours desquelles six gouvernements se sont succédé et où tous les principaux partis, y compris le Refah, dissout malgré tout en 1998, ont eu l’occasion d’exercer le pouvoir, les élections anticipées d’avril 1999 consacrent le retour aux affaires du parti social démocrate de l’ex Premier ministre Bullent Ecevit qui met fin à des dizaines d’années d’hostilité entre son parti et le Parti Nationaliste, arrivé en deuxième place aux élections, en ouvrant la voie à une coalition entre les deux partis. L’arrestation du leader du PKK Abdullah Ocalan, vécue comme une grande victoire par l’opinion publique locale, a fait beaucoup pour la popularité du gouvernement Ecevit, qui a par ailleurs été confronté à la gestion des conséquences du terrible tremblement de terre de1999.

En mai 2000, après sept ans de présidence, Soliman Demirel cède sa place à l’ancien juge constitutionnel Ahmet Necdet Sezer, toujours Président à ce jour.

L’année 2002 consacre le retour en grâce des partis islamistes, Recep Erdogan (AK Parti) menant son mouvement à la victoire lors des élections du 3 novembre 2002. C’est la première fois qu’un parti islamiste gagne à la majorité absolue les élections depuis la création de la République de Turquie. Il n’a manqué que quatre voix au Parti AK pour obtenir la majorité des deux tiers qui permet de faire réviser la Constitution. Recep Erdogan s’est converti à l’Europe en cours de campagne.

Le 15 janvier 2003, la Turquie signe le protocole n°6 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, interdisant la peine de mort en temps de paix, ouvrant ainsi la voie à une intégration à l’Union européenne, la question des droits de l’homme motivant, entre autres, les réserves des pays membres. » […]

 

 

Voir aussi : 

  • « Les industries créatives et l’économie créative dans les rapports officiels européens ».
    Rapport pour le département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication
    Philippe Bouquillion Professeur de sciences de l’information et de la communication à l’Université Paris 8 Jean-Baptiste Le Corf Doctorant en sciences de l’information et de la communication à l’Université Paris 8
    Centre d’étude des médias, des technologies et de l’internalisation Université Paris 8
    Mai 2010