Reports : TESEV


Media Content: The Regulatory Framework and Court Decisions (p.35)

“Article 25 of the constitution guarantees freedom of expression and protects individuals from state interference on expression of their opinions. Article 28 protects freedom of the press and imposes on the state a positive obligation to undertake the requisite measures to ensure the exercise of this freedom. The constitution guarantees the right to declare or disseminate opinions individually or collectively and to access and share information and opinions without state interference.

What lies beyond this liberal façade, however, is a framework where nationalism, statism and cultural conservatism emerge as the supreme values looming over individual rights. The exercise of fundamental freedoms is subject to compliance with; inter alia, national security, national unity and state secrets.

The constitution entrusts the state with the duty to make sure that citizens act and think in accordance with the ideals of Atatürk, the values of the nation and the morals of the family. Article 41 identifies the family as the ‘foundation of the Turkish society’ and tasks the state with taking measures to protect ‘the peace and welfare of the family’ and to protect children against all kinds of abuse and violence. Article 58 allots the

duty to protect the youth against abuse, exploitation and ‘bad habits’ such as alcoholism, drugs and gambling to the state, and as well as the responsibility to raise young people in accordance ‘the principles and revolutions of Atatürk.’ Making note of this ‘state- centrist approach,’ the Council of Europe (CoE) Commissioner for Human Rights pointed out the pervasive recognition ‘that the letter and spirit of the present Turkish Constitution represent a major obstacle to the effective protection of pluralism and freedom of expression’ (Hammarberg, 2011: para. 11).” […]

Executive Summary

Media policy in Turkey has shaped the media-state relationship since the establishment of the first newspaper in the late Ottoman period. While regulations were often employed as an effective disciplinary tool against the press in processes of state formation and modernization, opponent journalists have constantly been suppressed by state and non-state actors who claimed to act in the name of ‘state interests’.

The coup d’état in 1980 and the concomitant economic liberalisation changed the ownership structure of the media sector with the entry of new investors. Following the abolishment of state monopoly on broadcasting in the 1990s, big conglomerates expanding through vertical and horizontal mergers have dominated all fields of the media. The high concentrated market structure in the media was made possible due to the inadequacy of legal barriers to cross- mergers, as well as the lack of measures that would prevent media conglomerates from participating in public tenders in other sectors of the economy. The shortcomings of the regulatory framework to promote press freedom and diversity in the media has encouraged big corporations to regard themselves as legitimate political actors that can bargain with the government.

Media ownership was restructured following the economic crisis in 2001. Big media groups, which had investments in the financial and banking sectors, were particularly affected by the crisis; some being completely wiped out of the market, while others were seized by the state. Shortly after the Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi- AK Parti) came to power in 2002, the mainstream media was reconfigured ideologically as either ‘opponent’ or ‘proponent’ to the government.

Notwithstanding the limited positive effects of the EU accession process on media freedom, there are dozens of ECtHR judgments regarding freedom of expression and freedom of the press waiting to be executed by the Turkish state. Journalists who are powerless vis-à-vis the owners and political power are particularly affected by the political polarisation in the media. The structural obstacles to unionization and the lack of solidarity in the profession lead to labour exploitation, low quality content and violations of media ethics.

The lack of a strong pro-democracy social movement; the ideological conservatism of the judiciary; the institutional weakness of the parliament; and the lack of democracy within political parties render the government – and future governments – too powerful vis-à-vis the society and the media. On a positive note, however, there is a growing awareness on the need for social monitoring of the media. In the absence of a widely accepted and established self- regulatory framework, various non-governmental organizations and activist groups started to watch the media in order to expand the culture of diversity and to reduce discrimination, racism and hate speech.

Culture: (p.15-16)

“In recent years, Turkey has not just become more politically and economically active in the Middle East but culturally as well. The popularity of Turkish television series and holidaying in Turkey has become far more apparent. Thus the 2010 survey included questions about television and holidaying to understand this phenomenon.

Turkey as a destination has become more popular. Between 2007 and 2009, the number of tourists arriving from the surveyed countries increased from between 25% to 55% depending on the country.

Since 2009, Turkey has lifted visa requirements with Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria in both directions as well as for Saudi Arabian citizens. Indeed, comparing the number of tourists arriving from these four countries in the month of July 2010 to July 2009 reveals the impact of this policy: there was a 32% increase in the number of tourists from Jordan, an 88% increase from Lebanon, a 133% increase from Syria and a 59% increase from Saudi Arabia.

The results show that respondents saw Turkey as the most popular Middle Eastern destination. Indeed, Turkey was the most popular destination in Lebanon (51%), Iran (50%), Syria (43%), Jordan (41%), Palestine (41%) and Saudi Arabia (26%). Turkey’s nearest rival, Saudi Arabia, was the most popular destination amongst Egyptians only (32%). When asked about holidaying outside the region, France was the most popular destination but Turkey was the second most popular alongside Germany with 9%.

Turkish television series, dubbed in Arabic, are contributing to the visibililty of the country in the Middle East. Today the volume of these exports to the region is around $50 million per annum.

Indeed, television series have become an important part of Turkey’s soft power; the number of people who watch Turkish TV series in the region is very substantial and this has the potential to have a lasting effect on Turkey’s image. The survey results confirm this popularity: 78% of respondents had watched a Turkish TV series. The number of viewers was particularly high in Syria (85%) and Iraq (89%). Indeed, it’s not just the series themselves but Turkish celebrities that are popular in the Middle East: respondents could name no fewer than 15 Turkish TV series and 15 celebrities. Knowledge of Turkey’s television series and celebrities was particularly noteworthy in Iraq.”

 Television Broadcasting: (p.51-52)

“According to data from the Radio Television Supreme Council, there are currently 24 national, 15 regional and 209 local television enterprises on air. The categorization as national, regional and local broadcasting was done in consideration of RTÜK’s terrestrial broadcasting frequencies plan and the licenses granted under said plan. Yet, the developing technology and the widespread usage of satellite receiver systems continue to blur the distinction between local, regional and national broadcasting. For example, a television enterprise established in and broadcasting from the Black Sea region can have its broadcasts reach the national and even international audiences through satellite. Hence, although it may have a local broadcasting licence, it is not possible to regard such a television station as a local broadcaster. Even this change only demonstrates the need for more research and more discussion on the area of local broadcasting in Turkey.

On the other hand, in all of these scales, television is the media channel that has the highest access rate: it reaches more than 98% of those living in Turkey.The daily average spent watching television is 3 hours, going up to 7 hours for stay at housewifes. Cable TV broadcasting services are available in 21 cities, with approximately 1 million 275 thousand subscribers. Türksat A.Ş, the cable company that broadcasts public and private television enterprises, belongs to the state and is a monopoly. The company provides both infrastructure and broadcasting services; hence it also determines the channels that can broadcast on cable. A new draft regulation on the privatization of this service has been submitted to the public by RTÜK. The effective date of the regulation is as yet unknown.

Additionally, there are also two digital broadcasting platforms in the television broadcasting sector, one belonging to the Çukurova Group (Digiturk), and the other to the Doğan Group (D-Smart). DIGITURK has approximately 2 million 200 thousand subscribers, while D-Smart has 1 million 200 thousand subscribers.”

 Print & broadcast medias : (p.30-31)

“The media sector in Turkey is divided into aggregations. The biggest eight of the 15 media groups are Albayrak, Doğan, Çukurova,Ciner, Çalık, Feza, Doğuş and İhlas Groups. All major private television and radio stations, newspapers and periodicals belong to these groups. The Doğan Media Group and Merkez Group also have a monopoly over the distribution of the print media through Yay-Sat and MDP, respectively.

Established in 1980, Doğan Media Group is the largest media holding company in Turkey. The group has eight dailies: Hürriyet, Milliyet, Radikal, Posta, Vatan, Fanatik, Referans and Hürriyet Daily News. Hürriyet and Milliyet have a nationalist and statist position while Radikal has a social-democrat point of view. Posta is a tabloid newspaper and Referans was a financial newspaper that has recently been merged with Radikal. Doğan Media Group also owns the national TV channels Kanal D, Star and CNN Turk and radio channels Radio D, Slow Turk Radio and Radio Moda. The group also owns a digital platform called D-Smart, which includes many thematic and pay-per-view channels. Moreover, the group provides access for all TV channels on Türksat satellite. It has a stake in the cinema and advertising industries through D Productions. Channel Romania D is another investment of the group in Romania. The group also includes Doğan Burda Rizzoli (DBR), a joint venture with the German publishing house Burda and the Italian media corporation Rizzoli. Doğan runs its own news agency, DHA, publishing house, Doğan Kitap, and merchandising company, D&R. […]

Doğuş Media Group was founded in 1999. Its first channel was the news channel, NTV. In addition, the group collaborates with international brands such as CNBC, NBA, Billboard, Virgin, and National Geographic.

The Albayrak Group was established in 1952. Until 1982, it was active only in the construction sector. The group began publishing the daily Yeni Şafak in 1995. Having liberal and left-wing columnists who do not belong to the Islamic community the paper has emerged from, Yeni Şafak “offers a relatively broader perspective especially about the controversial issues.” Since 2007 it has been running TVNET, a news channel.

Ciner Holding was an active company in the automotive and energy sectors under the name of Park Holding. In 2002, the company entered the media sector. In September 2007 Ciner Publishing Holding was founded; it currently owns Habertü, Habertürk Radyo, Habertürk TV, Ajans Habertürk and Gazete Habertürk. The company holds international TV and radio channels such as Bloomberg TV and Bloomberg HT Radyo. The Turkish language editions of Marie Claire and Maison, belong to Ciner Group as does the recently closed Newsweek, FHM, Food and Travel, GEO, and Mother and Baby.

Çukurova Holding currently publishes the Akşam, Güneş, Tercüman newspapers and Alem magazine and owns the Show and Sky Turk TV stations. Turkcell, the leader in the GSM industry, as well as Digiturk, which broadcasts the national football league matches, also belong to this group.

The Turkuvaz Group belongs to Çalık Holding. In December 2007 the group bought the Merkez Medya Group from Ciner Holding and became the proprietors of the newspapers Yeni Asır (Izmir), Sabah, Takvim, Günaydın and Pas Fotomac, the weeklies Bebeğim ve Biz, Sinema, Home Art, Yeni Aktuel and Gobal Enerji, as well as the television station ATV. […]”

Turkey’s Image in the Arab World”written by Carnegie Middle East Center Director Paul Salem draws upon the survey to look at how Turkey is and should be responding to recent events in the region.

“[…]Questions 20 and 21 indicate the influence of soft power. A full 78% of respondents in the Arab world and Iran report that they have watched Turkish soap operas. Indeed these TV programs have taken the region by storm, with Turkish TV stars becoming pop idols among young and old, men and women. The impact of watching hours of these Turkish soap operas cannot be underestimated as they have the effect of creating attachment, understanding, and affection for Turkish identity, culture, and values among wide regional publics. Like Egyptian TV and cinema created a prominent cultural place for Egypt in previous decades, Turkish television has made similar inroads in Arab (and Iranian) popular culture. This has been complemented by a wave of tourism to Turkey in which Arabs and Iranians from various classes and walks of life have visited Turkey and become familiar and attached to its towns and cities, history and monuments, culture and people. Turkey is identified in the survey as the most popular tourist destination (35% put it as their first choice; followed by 19% for Saudi Arabia; and 13% for Lebanon.)[…]”

Challenges to Turkey’s Soft Power in the Middle East”written by the Dean of Graduate School of Sciences in METU Meliha Benli Altunışık questions how Turkey exercises its soft power in the Middle East, an issue that has become all the more relevant as a result of the Arab Spring.

Turkey’s attractiveness : (p.2)
” […] Finally, in recent years Turkey has become a source of attraction because of its cultural products. Since 2004 Turkish TV series have become quite popular in the Arab world. 78 percent of the respondents said yes to the question of whether they have ever watched a Turkish TV series in the TESEV poll. The popularity of these series has led to an increase in the numbers of visitors to Turkey from the Arab countries. The increase in human-tohuman interaction has facilitated learning from each other and started to shape images of the “other” in more positive ways.[…]”


“Muhteşem Yüzyıl’a yasak geliyor” – Sol

“AKP İstanbul Milletvekili Oktay Saral, tarihi dizilerin yayınlanmasına ilişkin yeni kriterler getiren kanun teklifini parti grubuna sundu.

Erdoğan’ın hedef haline getirdiği Muhteşem Yüzyıl adlı diziye yasak geliyor. AKP İstanbul Milletvekili Oktay Saral, Radyo ve Televizyonların Kuruluş ve Yayın Hizmetleri Hakkında Kanunun ”Yayın Hizmetleri İlkeleri” başlığına yeni bir fıkra eklemeyi öngören kanun teklifi hazırlayarak, parti grubuna sundu.

AA’nın haberine göre, Saral’ın Kanun teklifinde, “yayın hizmetleri, toplumun milli değerleri içerisinde kabul edilen tarihi olayları ve şahsiyetleri; küçük düşüren, aşağılayan, çarpıtan veya olduğundan tamamen farklı gösteren nitelikte olamayacak” ifadesi yer alıyor.

Bu teklifin Erdoğan’ın açıklamalarının ardından gelmesi, “Muhteşem Yüzyıl’a yasak geliyor” şeklinde yorumlandı.

Konuya ilişkin açıklama yapan Saral şöyle konuştu:

“Örneğin ömrü at sırtında ülkesine ve milletine hizmet yapmakla geçmiş olan Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, tamamen yatak odasından müteşekkil ve çarpık ilişkilere dayalı bir hayat içerisinde gösterilmektedir. Çocuklarımız ve gençlerimiz bu yayınları izlemekte ve tarihi şahsiyetleri bu yayınlar çerçevesinde değerlendirmektedir. Ayrıca bu diziler yurt dışına da seyredilmekte ve diğer milletler nezdinde tarihsel şahsiyetlerimiz hakkında yanlış olgular meydana gelmektedir.”

Source : Sol

“Her Lafın İçinde Bir Başbakan” – Sol

Kaynak : Sol

“Ülkenin temel meselelerinin ötesinde her mevzuya dair yorum yapmasına yönelik eleştirileri “Bu ülkenin Başbakanı olarak bu da benim görevim…” şeklinde göğüsleyen Tayyip Erdoğan’ın gündemini şu sıralar Muhteşem Yüzyıl meşgul ediyor.

Yayınlanmaya başlandığı günden bu yana pek çok kez gerici köşe yazarlarının ve RTÜK’ün, tarihi çarpıttığı gerekçesiyle hedef aldığı dizi şimdi de Başbakan’ın gündemine girdi. Kütahya’da katıldığı hava alanı açılışında konuşma yapan Tayyip Erdoğan 2 senedir yayında olan ve Kanuni Sultan Süleyman zamanının Osmanlı’sını anlatan Muhteşem Yüzyıl dizisine ateş püskürdü. Başbakan; “Bizim öyle bir ecdadımız yok. Biz öyle bir Kanuni tanımadık. Biz öyle bir Sultan Süleyman tanımadık. Onun ömrünün 30 yılı at sırtında geçti. Sarayda o gördüğünüz dizilerdeki gibi geçmedi” diyerek dizinin gerçeği yansıtmadığını iddia etti.

Tasvip etmediği durumlarda ‘yargıya talimat verdiğini’ söylemekte bir beis görmeyen Başbakan, “Bu konuda da ilgilileri uyarmamıza rağmen yargının da gerekli kararı vermesini bekliyoruz. Böyle bir anlayış olamaz. Bu milletin değerleriyle oynayanlara milletçe gereken dersin, cevabın hukuk içinde verilmesi gerekir” diyerek yargıyla olan ilişkisinin altını bir kez daha çizmiş oldu. Başbakanın uzlaşamadığı kaç gazetecinin işinden olduğu anımsandığında, “Ben o dizilerin yönetmenlerini de o televizyonların sahiplerini de milletimin huzurunda kınıyorum” dediği yönetmen ve televizyoncuların akıbeti merak konusu oldu.” […]

Source : Sol

“Amid Ottoman series row, Gül welcomes history in TV shows” – Today’s Zaman

“Turkish President Abdullah Gül has hailed depictions of history in TV shows and movies, adding his voice to recent debates over whether the depiction of history by artistic circles distorts society’s perceptions about certain historical incidents and figures.

“The fact that historical events or people are being dealt with in movies or TV series is a welcome development,” Gül said during the annual Presidential Grand Awards in Culture and Arts on Thursday.

The president stated that history, especially the Ottoman era, has in recent years become a subject of curiosity and interest for people and that’s why we see historical events and figures being more frequently portrayed in TV series, films and stories.

“It is important to take lessons from history. As the Turkish saying goes, ‘history repeats itself’,” Gül further stated.

The debate on TV shows based on history was sparked by remarks from Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who severely criticized “Muhteşem Yüzyıl” (Magnificent Century), a historical soap opera on Turkish networks centered on the intrigues of the Ottoman Palace. Those who criticize the series say it portrays şehzades, or the children of the sultan, as indulged only in sensual pleasures.

Erdoğan feels that the series undermines the golden age of Turkish history, as it portrays Ottoman Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, known as Kanuni in Turkish, who reigned from his coronation in 1520 to his death in 1566, in a way conservatives in Turkey say is skewed.

Erdoğan not only lashed out at the show but also at its producers, as well as the owner of the network that runs it. “We know no such Kanuni. He spent 30 years of his life on horseback [as opposed to the life of indulgence portrayed in the series]. I publicly condemn the directors of that show and the owners of the television station. We have warned the authorities about this. I expect the judiciary to make the right decision.”

The series has been running for two years. Erdoğan and other government representatives have occasionally expressed their annoyance with it, but this was the first time Erdoğan called on the judiciary to act against the show, sparking a major controversy about free speech in Turkey.”

Source : Today’s Zaman

“Turkish PM’s attacks to TV series raise eyebrows” – Hürriyet Daily News

Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. AA photo. Source : Hürriyet

“Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s heavy criticism Nov. 25 of the hit Turkish TV soap opera “Muhteşem Yüzyıl” (The Magnificent Century) for its portrayal of the Ottoman ruler Süleyman the Magnificent has led to rigorous criticism by members of opposition parties.

Some described Erdoğan’s behavior as an intervention in the judiciary because he had said, “We have alerted the authorities on this, and we wait for judicial decision on it.” Others said the prime minister was mainly trying to divert the country’s agenda.[…]

Tv series and historical facts

“Did it just occur to him now? This TV series has been on the air for more than a year,” Büyükataman told Radikal. “The series should be reviewed in line with historical facts, but I don’t believe in the sincerity of Mr. Prime Minister’s approach.”

Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) deputy parliamentary group chair İdris Balüken said Erdoğan’s main problem was his aspiration to tyrannize over arts and artists, while also intervening in the judiciary as the judiciary itself has already been manipulated by his positions.

“Taking this aspect into consideration, we can estimate the greatness of the danger of an order given to the judiciary for censorship and to take the arts under its control,” Balüken said.”

Source : Hürriyet Daily News

“Turkish PM talks Ottoman Empire, slams Turkish TV show ” – Hürriyet Daily News

PM R.T. Erdogan. AA photo. Source : Hürriyet Daily News

“Turkey should follow in its ancestors’ footsteps and go everywhere they have travelled to, the Turkish prime minister said during the opening ceremony of Kütahya Zafer Airport on Nov.25.

“We move with the minds of our Dumlupınar martyrs,” Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said. “We move with the spirit that founded the Ottoman Empire.”

Erdoğan then criticized the opposition for asking “what [Turkey] was doing in Gaza, Syria and Sudan.”

“We must go everywhere our ancestors have been,” Erdoğan said. “We can not take [Atatürk’s philosophy of] peace at home, peace in the world as passivity.”

“We have no eyes on any country’s land,” Erdoğan said. “We want stability in the region as much as we want stability in our homeland. We always side with dialogue to solve problems, but if there is a threat against our country then we will not refrain from taking the necessary precautions. We will not remain silent.”

PM slams Ottoman TV show

In the same speech Erdoğan also dished out heavy criticism on the hit Turkish TV series, “Muhteşem Yüzyıl,” (The Magnificent Century) for its portrayal of the Ottoman ruler Süleyman.

“We alerted the authorities on this and we wait for judicial decision on it,” Erdoğan said. “Those who toy with these values should be taught a lesson within the premises of law.”

Muhteşem Yüzyıl is a popular TV show airing in Turkey and abroad, which follows the lives of the Ottoman ruler Süleyman and his love Hürrem Sultan. The show focuses more on Süleyman’s personal life and palace life, portraying characters from the harem, as well as from the royal family. “

Source : Hürriyet Daily News

“Behzat Ç. bu kez KCK tutuklularını anlatacak: ‘Hodri meydan, isterseniz bunu yayınlamayın’ ” – Sol

“Behzat Ç.” dizisi. Kaynak : Sol

“Behzat Ç.’nin yazarı Emrah Serbes, dizinin 80. bölümünde KCK tutuklularına değineceklerini belirterek, “Hodri meydan. İsterseniz bunu yayınlamayın” dedi.

Star TV’de yayınlanan “Behzat Ç.”nin yazarı Emrah Serbes, 80. bölümde KCK tutuklamalarını ele alacaklarını açıkladı.

“Memleketin Hali” adlı programa konuk olan Serbes, burada yaptığı açıklamada şu ifadeleri kullandı:

“Bize sürekli baskı yapıyorlar. Diziye başladığımızda saat 20.00’de yayınlanıyorduk. Ondan sonra 2’nci sezonda saat 22.00’ye attılar. Bu sezon da saat 23.00’e… Ayrıca ‘13+’ sınırı getirdiler. Ondan sonra sabah kuşağına doğru atacaklar. Bu gidişle Seda Sayan’dan önce yayınlanacağız. Ama bu halk her şeye rağmen izlenmez sanılan dizimizi izliyor.

Şimdi biz 80. bölümde KCK tutuklularına değiniyoruz, bunu yazıyoruz. İsterseniz bunu yayınlamayın. Hodri meydan, yayınlamayın. Ne yapacaksınız, bizi kaldıracak mısınız? Kaldıramazsınız. Seyircimize de söylüyorum, bize sahip çıkın. Eğer yayınlamazlarsa üstüne gidin diyorum.”

Source : Sol

“Incest: The last taboo in Turkish cinema and TV” – Hürriyet Daily News

The movie, ‘When Derin Falls,’ is about a 8 -year-old girl, who tries connecting with her father in every possbile way, including encounters with sexual undertones. Source : Hürriyet

“The recent controversy around a Turkish film dealing with incest reminded many of a similar brouhaha over another film on incest two years ago, as well as Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç’s warning to TV producers to keep incest away from screens

Red flags were raised amid media delirium last week when the head of the jury for a national film festival openly condemned a movie on moral grounds, allegedly threatening to ban the movie from entering the national competition.

The festival was the Golden Orange Film Festival, the biggest one in Turkey. The head of the jury was the ever-controversial Hülya Avşar, who had made headlines in the summer when a member of the jury resigned in protest over her selection, questioning her judgment and knowledge of film.

The film, which became the most talked-about film of the festival, was director Çağatay Tosun’s sophomore feature “Derin Düşün-ce” (a word play that could mean “Deep Thought” or “When Derin Falls,” referring to the little protagonist’s name). And the controversial subject matter was incest, a no-go area in Turkish cinema, television, literature and pop culture. […]

Incest is indeed a taboo that is ignored and remains invisible in the media, in cinema and on TV. And if there is a hint of incest, censorship comes in all forms and from all places. Sometimes it’s the audience, sometimes the head of the jury, and at other times, it’s the deputy prime minister.

Last spring, Deputy Prime Minister Bülent Arınç made a statement out of the blue in an attempt to put into action his conservative views on relationships (and probably the views of his fellow members of the pro-Islamic ruling Justice and Development Party – AKP) as depicted in dozens of TV series.

“Some of the marginal themes seen in recent TV series, such as relationships between people of the opposite sex and incest, have become cause for serious criticism, upsetting society. We have to take seriously the criticisms regarding these series. These themes have to be reassessed,” said Arınç, stealing headlines for a few days if not actually making much of an impact on the plots in the series.

It was not that difficult to trace the inappropriate relationships between the sexes he was referring to, as infidelity, marital rape and abusive relationships are not new to recent TV series in Turkey. But incest? The closest reference Arınç could have in mind was the series “Eve Düşen Yıldırım” (Lightning Strikes Home), which features two cousins falling in love; it’s not an unusual situation, and one that is definitely not found immoral in most parts of Turkey. The story, on the other hand, was not an original one written for TV. “Eve Düşen Yıldırım” was an adaptation of Turkish writer Nahid Sırrı Örik’s 1934 novel of the same name. In fact, it was not that uncommon to see cousins falling in love and marrying in the Turkish novels of the early 20th century, seen in such classics like Reşat Nuri Güntekin’s 1922 novel “Çalıkuşu” (The Wren) or “Aşk-ı Memnu” (Forbidden Love) by Halit Ziya Uşaklıgil, serialized in 1900. Of course, when the latter was adapted to TV to huge success in 2008.”

Source : Hürriyet Daily News

“Zaman: ‘Diziler imamların kontrolünde olsun'” – Sol

Source : Sol

“Zaman gazetesi bu kez dizileri “dini hatalar” yaptığı için hedef gösterdi. Ustura Kemal isimli bir dizide ezanın eksik okunduğunu söyleyerek harekete geçen gazete, “Dizilerde dini konularda hatadan geçilmiyor, ekiplerde uzman şart” başlığıyla hazırladığı haberinde dizi setlerine imam yerleştirilmesi çağrısı yaptı.

TV’de yayınlanan dizilerde alkol kullanılmaması, evlilik dışı ilişkinin bulunmaması, küfür eden polisin olmaması için harcanan çabalara bir yenisi daha eklendi. Zaman gazetesi aracılığıyla dillendirilen hedef, “Dini konularda hata yapan dizilerin imamların elinden geçmesi” oldu.

Dizilerde dini hatalar Zaman’ı çileden çıkardı!

Zaman’dan Neşe Polat’ın haberine göre, Ustura Kemal dizisinde ezanın “Eşhedu Enne Muhammeden Resulullah” kısmının okunmaması Peygamber’in ezandan çıkartılması anlamına geldi. Haberde, “Dizilerin çoğunda böyle hatalar yapılıyor. Birinde imam rükûdan kalkarken ‘Allahu Ekber’ diyor, bir diğerinde ölü kabre konulurken sağ yerine sol tarafına yatırılıyor” ifadeleri kullanıldı.

İlahiyatçı: “Dizilerin dini açıdan uygun olup olmadığı bakılmalı”

Zaman hedef gösterdiği dizi hakkında bir İlahiyatçı’dan da görüş almayı ihmal etmedi. Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Öğretim Üyesi Prof. Dr. Ramazan Altıntaş’ın “Ezan, İslam’ın en önemli şiarlarından birisi” ifadesine yer verilen haberde, ilahiyatçının önerilerine şöyle yer verildi: “Gerek sinema ve tiyatrolarda, gerek televizyonlarımız başta olmak üzere basın-yayın kuruluşlarında, hatta sinema filmleri, dizi ve belgesel yapımlarında mutlaka dinî açıdan uygun olup olmadığı konusunda görüşlerine başvurulacak yüksek din eğitimi almış bir uzmanın istihdam edilmesi büyük önem taşımaktadır.”

Televizyon eleştirmeni: “Televizyon din konusunda eğitici olmalı”

İlahiyatçının görüşlerini almakla yetinmeyen Zaman, bir televizyon eleştirmenine de sorularını yöneltti. Televizyon eleştirmeni Yüksel Aytuğ yaptığı açıklamada, “Televizyon din konusunda eğitici bir vazife yapmalı. Halkın dinî konularda bilinçlenmesi için dizilere önemli misyon düşüyor. Bu sebeple dizilerle işlenen bu konular uzmanların denetiminde yapılmalı. En azından bir danışmandan bilgi alınmalı. Yönetmen, yönetmen yardımcıları ve sanat danışmanları bu konuya özel hassasiyet göstermeli” ifadelerini kullandı.

Dizinin yönetmeni: “Yanlışlık olmuş, özür dilerim”

Ezanı eksik okuttuğu için hedef gösterilen Ustura Kemal dizisinin yönetmeni Mustafa Şevki Doğan’ın da “Teknik bir montaj hatası sonucu oluşmuştur” sözlerini kullanan Zaman, yönetmen Doğan’ın, “’Ezân-ı Muhammedî’m benim için cesedimden önemlidir ve ölene dek önemli olacaktır. Teknik bir montaj hatasından kaynaklanan bu durumun yine dinimizin gereği olan ‘hoşgörü’ çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesini diler, milletimden tüm samimiyetimle özür dilerim” dediğine haberde yer verdi.

Zaman neyi dert edindi?

Dizilerin peşine düştüğü anlaşılan gazete gördüğü “önemli” dini hataları da şöyle sıraladı: “Dizilerdeki dinî hatalar deyince akla ilk Muhteşem Yüzyıl dizisinde geçen sezon yayınlanan Rodos’un fethi bölümündeki şeyhülislamın kıldırdığı namaz sahnesi geliyor. Rükûdan “semiallahü limen hamideh” yerine “Allahu Ekber” diyerek doğruluyorlar. Huzur Sokağı’nda da Feyza karakteri teravih namazı için camiye gidiyor ancak üzerinde şeffaf bir gömlek var ve başörtüsü düzgün bağlı değil. Kurtlar Vadisi’nde ise Polat Alemdar vefat eden can dostu Memati’yi kabre koyarken sağ tarafına değil sol tarafına yatırıyor.”

Source : Sol

” ‘Media published manufactured lies during Feb. 28 coup era’ ” – Sunday’s Zaman

Sabah’s former boss, Dinç Bilgin, says he is ready to testify in the Feb. 28 investigation. (Photo: Today's Zaman)

“The former owner of a media group has said Turkish newspapers published lies under orders from the military during Turkey’s Feb. 28, 1997 period, saying he is willing to testify in front of prosecutors, who on Thursday issued arrest warrants for 31 generals accused of orchestrating the coup.

Dinç Bilgin, a businessman who was the owner of the Sabah newspaper at the time, said Feb. 28 generals relied heavily on the media to manufacture stories about a growing Islamist threat and that there was a lot of pressure on newspaper owners and editors at the time. “I see the new developments as a very positive step forward. The military at the time saw itself as the hegemon of the country. They saw themselves as above all the country’s constitutional agencies.”

He said the media, as well as academia and the judiciary and other segments of society, were under significant pressure from the military. Bilgin also noted that he would be happy to testify and share what he knows about the Feb. 28 era with prosecutors or judges.

Bilgin said during the Feb. 28 period, he met once with generals Çevik Bir and Erol Öskasnak, who complained about Sabah’s staff, saying they were not doing enough to assist the military. “I was invited to the General Staff headquarters in Ankara. Chief of the General Staff İsmail Hakkı Karadayı invited me for dinner. Before dinner, we sat together with Çevik Bir and Erol Ökasnak in a room. It was a very unpleasant conversation. They complained about Sabah columnists. They complained because the writers weren’t writing the things they wanted to see. I tried my best to explain that newspapers don’t work like the military; however, at the time, it was impossible to explain this to those people. Being a strong media mogul, I gave snide, arrogant replies. It was very unpleasant.”

He said the press, instead of fighting a democratic struggle, published untruthful stories to instill fear about the imaginary threat of rising Islamism that the military had said it was committed to fighting. “After the media, the generals’ strongest ally was the judiciary. Think about the prosecutors of the day. If you opposed them, you would end up in front of Nuh Mete Yüksel,” he said, referring to the chief prosecutor of the State Security Courts (DGM).

Bilgin said some people that the media reported on, who appeared to be reactionary Islamists, were in fact hired actors. “I am saying this for the mainstream media. Generally, such stories on Islamic fundamentalism were being published through the Ankara offices. Whoever is the head of the Ankara office usually wants better ties with the General Staff. The military was the strongest institution in the country at the time, so they wanted to get along with them.” Bilgin stated he would be happy to testify and share his knowledge with the prosecutors if summoned.

Rector of Onsekiz Mart University Sedat Laçiner also made a statement evaluating the recent developments. He said the Feb. 28 intervention was a crime that went unpunished. “Because there were ongoing coup attempts inside the military, those responsible for the Feb. 28 and the Sept. 12 [1980] coups couldn’t be tried earlier,” Laçiner said.

He said the fact that the Feb. 28 intervention was a military takeover is accepted by both those who staged it and those who were victimized by it. He said there was a clear intervention by the military in the civilian government. “Just like the Sept. 12 coup, Feb. 28 also involved torture and many violations of human rights. This is more than the crime of military intervention; there are also people who have been victimized. People were fired from their jobs with no justification, people were treated as if they were second-class citizens. There are people who were put in a cell and interrogated there, people who were told they would be denied their right to education unless they changed the way they dressed. There are people who killed themselves because they were slandered.”

Laçiner noted that the civilian aides of the Feb. 28 architects kept tabs on hundreds of university students and reported on them regularly to the Higher Education Board (YÖK), saying this was a huge violation of human rights. “Despite the fact that millions of people have been victimized, the guilty ones are freely walking the streets. Letting this go unpunished is tantamount to encouraging the crime. You can’t have any statute of limitations here. This crime at hand is obvious.”

Source : Sunday’s Zaman

Reports : RTÜK


“Radyo ve Televizyon Üst Kurulu özürlü vatandaşların televizyon izleme eğilimlerini belirlemeye yönelik olarak, örneklemi Türkiye genelini kapsayan bir kamuoyu araştırması yaptı.

11-27 Eylül 2007 tarihleri arasında, Türkiye genelini temsilen 20 ilde 15 ve daha yukarı yaştaki toplam 2488 özürlü/engelli kişinin katılımıyla gerçekleştirilen “Özürlü Vatandaşların Televizyon İzleme Eğilimleri Araştırması” ile araştırmaya katılan 78 kişiyle yapılan derinlemesine mülakat sonuçlarına göre, özürlüler hafta içi günlerde ortalama 4.3 saat televizyon izliyor/dinliyor. Özürlü vatandaşlarımız tarafından en çok izlenen/dinlenen kanallar, Kanal D (% 54), Show TV (% 50,3), ATV (%50), TRT Kanalları (%42,1), Star (%37,3) ve Samanyolu (% 21) olarak sıralanmakta. TRT’nin beğenilme nedenlerinin başında yayınlarının kaliteli olması ve haber programlarının iyi olması gelmekte. Kanal D, ATV ve Show TV’nin beğenilme ratingini yükselten ise kanallarında yayınlanan diziler.”

Hafta içi 3 saat olan televizyon izleme süresi %20.5’e, 2 saatlik TV izleme oranı ise %17.2’ye çıkmıştır.

– Hafta içi kadınlar 4,5 saat, erkekler ise 4,1 saat TV izlemektedirler.
– Hafta içi en çok TV izleyen yaş grubunun 41+ olduğu ve 4,5 saate ulaştığı görülmektedir.
– Hafta içi evliler 4,4 saat ile en çok TV izleyen grubu oluşturmaktadır.
– Eğitim düzeyi azaldıkça TV izleme oranının arttığı görülmektedir.
– Hafta içi emekli ve işsizlerin 5 saat TV izlediği görülmekte, bu grubu ev hanımı ve çiftçiler takip etmektedir.
– Hafta içi 5,2 saat ile Akdeniz Bölgesinin en çok TV izleyen bölge olduğu görülmektedir.
– Hafta içi TV izleme saatleri incelendiğinde %70,9 ile 18:01-21:00 saatlerinin en çok izlenen saatler, %15 oranı ile 12:01-15:00 saatlerinin ise en az izlenen saatler olduğu gözlenmektedir.
– Hafta sonu TV izleme sürelerine bakıldığında 6 saatlik TV izleme süresinin %15,8’i, 4 saatlik TV izleme süresinin %15,7’yi oluşturduğu görülmektedir.
– Hafta sonu erkekler 4,6 saat, kadınlar ise 4,5 saat TV izlemektedirler.
– Hafta sonu evlilerin 4,6 saat TV izlediği görülmektedir.
– Hafta sonu 5,5 saat ile Akdeniz Bölgesi en çok TV izleyen bölgeyi oluştururken, Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi 4 saat ile en az TV izleyen bölgedir.
– Hafta sonu TV izleme saatleri incelendiğinde % 68,7 ile 18:01-21:00 saatlerinin en çok izlenen, % 14,8 oranı ile 09:01-12:00 saatlerinin ise en az izlenen saatler olduğu gözlenmiştir.
– Televizyon programlarının izlenme sıklığı verilerine bakıldığında %93,7 ile haberler, %86,2 ile yerli diziler ve %61,8 ile dini programlar sıralanmaktadır.
– Televizyonlarda yayınlanması istenmeyen program türleri sıralaması şu şekildedir: %63 ile kadın kuşak-izdivaç programları, %50,3 ile magazin programları ve %22,7 ile spor programlarıdır.
– Araştırmada deneklerin %60,3’nün reklamları gördüğünde kanal değiştirdiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
– Araştırmaya katılan deneklerin iletişim araçlarına duydukları güven düzeyi incelendiğinde %47,1 ile en çok radyoya güvendikleri, %42,2 ile ise en az televizyona güvendikleri görülmektedir. İnternete olan güven düzeyinde artış olduğu da gözlenmektedir.



[…] Televizyon dizileri, günümüzde Türk televizyonlarında en çok rastlanılan ve televizyon ile en çok bağdaĢtırılan tür olarak görülmektedir. Mutlu‟ya göre, bu türün alt kategorileri, genellikle ana karakterlerin mesleklerine göre ayrıĢabilir. Bu duruma, polisiye ve dedektif dizileri, avukat veya doktorlar üzerine kurulu olan diziler örnek verilebilir. Bunlar içerisinde en popüler olanı da polisiye türünde olanlardır.

Mutlu‟nun da belirttiği gibi, televizyon dizileri ve seriyaller, televizyonun en ayırt edici türleridir. Dizi ve seriyaller birbirinden farklı türler olarak ortaya çıkmıĢlardır. Diziler, ortak karakterlerin ve genellikle ortak mekânların kullanıldığı, anlatılan hikâyenin genellikle aynı bölüm içerisinde çözüme kavuĢtuğu, televizyon oyunlarına benzeyen bir yapıya sahiptir. Oysa seriyaller, merak unsuruna dayalı, devamı izleyici merak ettirilerek sağlanan bir program türüdür. Seriyalleri oluĢturan bölümlerin her birinde, daha büyük bir hikâyenin parçaları verilmektedir. Dolayısıyla, ana bir olay dizisi sonucunda tamamlanan hikâyenin içinde aynı zamanda, yan olaylar da yer almakta, bu nedenle seriyaller çok uzun sürmektedir. Ġçinde drama barındıran bu tür izleyicide bağımlılık da yaratır. Seriyal ne kadar uzun sürerse, o kadar izleme alıĢkanlığı yaratır. Bu izleme alıĢkanlığı sürdüğü müddetçe dizinin baĢarı ölçüsü artmaktadı.

Günümüzde ise dizi ve seriyal arasındaki sözü geçen anlatı farklılıkları bulunmamaktadır. Her iki tür de anlatı yapısı olarak birbirlerinin özelliklerini göstermektedir. Ġzleyicinin sonraki bölümü izlemek için merakta bırakılması her iki tür için de ortak bir özellik olarak göze çarpar. Televizyon dramasında öykünün eksenindeki iliĢki ağı, karakterler ve formata bağlı olarak değiĢen alt türlerden söz edilebilir. Bu alt türler arasında dedektif dizileri, polisiyeler, hastane melodramları, bilim kurgu ve fantezi diziler, televizyon filmleri, soap operalar ya da pembe diziler ve durum komedileri sayılabilir. […]

See also : 

“TV ratings suspended as TİAK seek alternative” – Today’s Zaman

Source : Today's Zaman

“The Television Audience Research Committee (TİAK) has announced that it is severing its agreement with the rating-measurement company AGB Nielsen in a move that has plunged the future of television ratings in Turkey into uncertainty.

In the latest twist in the rating-fraud scandal, which has shaken the Turkish television world, TİAK terminated its contract with AGB, an international company that measures over 40 percent of the world’s TV viewing behavior, following the revelation that the company had leaked a confidential list that included details of families who had been bribed to manipulate TV ratings.

With no immediate solution on the horizon, TİAK is looking to enter into negotiations with Taylor Nelson Sofres (TNS), with whom it has an existing contract to begin working in September 2012, as to the possibility of putting the contract into effect sooner than planned.

Speaking about what the future holds for the calculation of TV ratings in Turkey, TİAK General Manager Dursun Güleryüz said the company requires a short period to make decisions regarding future partnerships: “We are currently trying to bring forward the date with which we begin working with TNS. At the moment it is a little ambiguous, but we will make a firm decision at a TİAK board of directors meeting next week,” adding that the company’s foremost aim was to ensure that the sector did not suffer damage and that the situation could be rectified in a reliable and trustworthy way.

Despite the uncertainty of the situation and the fact that ratings will not be carried out for the next few months, TİAK President Hidayet Karaca maintained that TV channels and all the parties involved would not suffer any drawbacks. “Ratings are very important because of course they directly affect the proportion of advertising that a channel gets. This has been a problem that has been lingering over the sector for several years now; but as of Dec. 20 we have decided to cut our ties with AGB, and next week we will get together with advertising agencies and production companies and together decide about the plan for the future,” he said.”

Source : Today’s Zaman 

“AGB founder sold TV ratings company in face of network pressure” – Today’s Zaman

Hilmi Köksal Alişanoğlu (Photo: AA). Source : Today's Zaman

“A businessman who was one of the founding partners of the AGB television ratings company, which is currently at the heart of a ratings scandal, has said he and his partners were forced to sell the company in the face of pressure from network owners and producers to present ratings for their stations and shows higher than they actually are.

Hilmi Köksal Alişanoğlu, who founded AGB with his partners in 1984, said he faced great pressure from broadcasters. “We resisted for a long time, but it wasn’t enough. When we couldn’t anymore, in 1994, we transferred the company ownership for a meager sum.”

Ratings takers have been in the spotlight since police launched a major investigation into ratings fraud. In the course of the probe, it became evident that some networks had obtained a list of households where ratings measuring devices had been installed and bribed residents to watch their shows in order to manipulate their ratings.

Alişanoğlu, author of “The Communist Businessman” — a humorous book which recounts the author’s memories as a businessman, told Today’s Zaman that networks have been pressuring ratings companies to manipulate viewer ratings for the past 20 years. “There are so many agencies, so many producers involved,” he said, reiterating that this was the only reason he and his partners sold their company.

He also indicated he was sure that AGB had not leaked the identities of families with ratings measuring boxes, noting that producers have been able to acquire lists of households in the ratings program through intimidation for years.

He recalled that a similar incident had taken place earlier. “In 1992, a television network tried to strong arm us because its overall ratings were low. They told us to ‘correct their ratings.’ After a short while, the [then-state-owned telephone and postal company] PTT raided our office and demanded the list. We gave the list to the PTT. However, after a while, the same company started complaining again that their ratings were falling. They said our viewer lists were being leaked and they showed a list that was exactly the same copy we had given the PTT — it had my handwriting on it. We had to suspend ratings measurement operations for that year.”

Alişanoğlu added that the AGB suffered major to its reputation after it was sold in the face of pressure from networks. The businessman detailed in his books the tricks carried out by broadcasters and producers to manipulate their ratings. Alişanoğlu has held managerial positions in various media companies, including Bileşim, Bileşim Media and AGB — three companies he helped establish.”

Source : Today’s Zaman

Rapports : Union Européenne


“«Europe créative», nouveau programme-cadre pour les secteurs de la culture et de la création relevant du cadre financier pluriannuel (CFP) 2014-2020, réunira les actuels programmes Culture, MEDIA et MEDIA Mundus dans un cadre commun et établira une toute nouvelle facilité visant à améliorer l’accès au financement. […]


[…] “Les industries culturelles et créatives se caractérisent par une nature duale (qui les distingue de toute autre industrie), à la fois économique, par leur contribution en termes d’emploi, de croissance et de création de richesses, mais avant tout culturelle, par leurs activités qui contribuent à l’épanouissement et à l’intégration sociale et culturelle des citoyens. En encourageant la créativité et en innovant pour améliorer les processus de distribution et de production, ces industries jouent, dans l’Union européenne, un rôle majeur dans la promotion de la diversité culturelle et linguistique, du pluralisme, de la cohésion sociale et territoriale mais aussi dans la démocratisation de l’accès à la culture et la promotion du dialogue interculturel. À ce titre, rémunérer de manière juste la création grâce aux droits de propriété intellectuelle est une condition sine qua non à la préservation de la diversité culturelle européenne.

Aussi faut-il faciliter la mobilité et l’attractivité. En effet, promouvoir la mobilité des artistes, des praticiens de la culture et des œuvres est un moyen d’aider les industries culturelles et créatives européennes à passer notamment de l’échelon local à l’échelon national. Pour ce faire, il est nécessaire de s’employer à mettre en place des partenariats équilibrés avec les professionnels européens sur la base de mécanismes de concertation régulière pour suivre un secteur en évolution rapide, lever les freins à la mobilité et assurer une veille sur les outils développés à tous les niveaux.” […]

Extrait d’une interview de Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid du 14 février 2011 :

[…] “Ces industries représentent plus de 600 milliards d’euros de chiffre d’affaire par an, soit 2,6% du PIB, explique Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid, “et elles ne sont pas en récession. Aujourd’hui en Europe, et malgré la crise, les industries culturelles sont en croissance, en particulier, les industries du luxe.”

Ces industries très diverses jouissent d’un énorme potentiel, renforcé par les possibilités de diffusion qu’offre l’ère numérique. Mais ce potentiel n’est pas encore pleinement exploité, car ces industries “sont un peu trop cantonnées dans leurs états membres”, estime la députée.

L’union européenne peut aider à surmonter ces obstacles, par exemple grâce aux programmes comme MEDIA (financement pour l’industrie audiovisuelle) ou le Prix Lux du Parlement européen.” […]




[…] “As regards audiovisual policy, the Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) adopted a regulation in November 2009 that lifted the time restrictions for private broadcasters and allowed 24-hour broadcasting in languages other than Turkish. The Regulation also removed the subtitle/consecutive translation requirement, thus opening the way for live broadcasts. Limitations as regards children’s and language teaching programmes have also been lifted. As a consequence, the number of radio stations and TV channels broadcasting in languages other than Turkish has increased to 15 (5 TV channels and 10 radio stations), all of them broadcasting regionally.

The consultation forum with broadcasters continued, although on an irregular basis. RTÜK has reinforced its monitoring capacity by recruiting new staff who speak Kırmanji and Zaza. For the moment however, the monitoring of all local TV and radio broadcasts are carried out with the contributions of the monitoring units of the local police in line with a protocol that was first signed in 1998 and amended in 2006.

TRT became a shareholder in Euronews, whose Turkish service has been on air since January 2010, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Euronews in Turkish is distributed all over Turkey by TRT and is available on all distribution networks. In addition, TRT 2 is using Euronews programmes and the Turkish internet service also features Euronews programmes on demand.

In terms of alignment with the acquis, however, there has been no development. Media legislation is not yet aligned with the Audiovisual Media Services Directive. The draft law aiming to implement the directive was submitted to parliament in May 2010. RTÜK has not yet reallocated frequencies and the broadcasters have continued to use terrestrial frequencies on a de facto basis. The licensing deadlock continues to damage the broadcasting industry and also causes technical difficulties, such as significant interference, including cross-border, on both telecommunication systems and television and radio broadcasts. Switchover to digital would solve this problem, since Turkey adopted a roadmap on digital switchover in 2009, in line with the objective set by the European Commission for EU Member States.

The interpretation of certain articles of the broadcasting law and the sanctions imposed on broadcasters raised concerns. In June, RTÜK imposed a broadcasting ban on a channel for the words of a writer who spoke about the Armenian issue and which according to the regulator exceeded the limits of criticism.” […]

[…] “Proclamée en 1923, la République de Turquie, malgré une brève interruption entre 1960 et 1961, s’est apparentée à une démocratie parlementaire jusqu’en 1980, date à laquelle l’armée a pris le pouvoir. Le rétablissement d’un gouvernement civil en 1983 a permis le retour à la démocratie.

Depuis 1983 et la renaissance de la vie politique, plusieurs partis ou coalitions se sont succédé à la tête de l’exécutif.

En 1983, le Parti de la Mère Patrie (ANAP) remporte les premières élections libres depuis la prise de pouvoir par les militaires. Il s’agit d’un parti conservateur.

En octobre 1991, six mois après la fin de la guerre du Golfe à laquelle la Turquie a activement participé, le Parti de la Voie Juste (DYP) remporte les élections mais son leader, Soliman Demirel, est contraint de s’allier avec le Parti Populaire Social Démocrate (SHP). On a parlé là encore d’alliance conservatrice. Les bénéfices tirés de la guerre du Golfe ont permis d’intensifier pendant cette période la lutte contre le PKK (Parti des travailleurs kurdes) et de contrecarrer pour un temps les projets d’indépendance de la minorité kurde.

En juin 1993, le Premier ministre Soliman Demirel succède à Turgut Ozal à la présidence de la République de Turquie. Ce bouleversement à la tête de l’exécutif coïncide avec la montée en puissance du Parti Fondamentaliste Islamique (Refah) qui n’a de cesse de faire la preuve de sa crédibilité électorale entre 1993 et 1995, contraignant même le parti au pouvoir (DYP) à s’allier avec le parti de centre droit ANAP afin de barrer le passage aux islamistes lors des élections de décembre 1995.

Les mésententes entre les dirigeants des deux partis au pouvoir conduisent dès 1996 à la dissolution de l’alliance et à la constitution d’une nouvelle coalition entre le DYP et les islamistes du Refah. Necmettin Erbakan devient chef du gouvernement en juin 1996. Souffrant d’une relative méfiance de l’opinion et du manque d’appui des militaires du Conseil national de sécurité à l’influence politique et aux aspirations laïques affirmées, le Refah a eu le plus grand mal à mettre en application sa politique de repli vis-à-vis de l’OTAN et de l’Union européenne, en rupture avec les engagements pro-européens des gouvernements précédents.

Après trois années d’instabilité politique relative au cours desquelles six gouvernements se sont succédé et où tous les principaux partis, y compris le Refah, dissout malgré tout en 1998, ont eu l’occasion d’exercer le pouvoir, les élections anticipées d’avril 1999 consacrent le retour aux affaires du parti social démocrate de l’ex Premier ministre Bullent Ecevit qui met fin à des dizaines d’années d’hostilité entre son parti et le Parti Nationaliste, arrivé en deuxième place aux élections, en ouvrant la voie à une coalition entre les deux partis. L’arrestation du leader du PKK Abdullah Ocalan, vécue comme une grande victoire par l’opinion publique locale, a fait beaucoup pour la popularité du gouvernement Ecevit, qui a par ailleurs été confronté à la gestion des conséquences du terrible tremblement de terre de1999.

En mai 2000, après sept ans de présidence, Soliman Demirel cède sa place à l’ancien juge constitutionnel Ahmet Necdet Sezer, toujours Président à ce jour.

L’année 2002 consacre le retour en grâce des partis islamistes, Recep Erdogan (AK Parti) menant son mouvement à la victoire lors des élections du 3 novembre 2002. C’est la première fois qu’un parti islamiste gagne à la majorité absolue les élections depuis la création de la République de Turquie. Il n’a manqué que quatre voix au Parti AK pour obtenir la majorité des deux tiers qui permet de faire réviser la Constitution. Recep Erdogan s’est converti à l’Europe en cours de campagne.

Le 15 janvier 2003, la Turquie signe le protocole n°6 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, interdisant la peine de mort en temps de paix, ouvrant ainsi la voie à une intégration à l’Union européenne, la question des droits de l’homme motivant, entre autres, les réserves des pays membres.” […]



Voir aussi : 

  • “Les industries créatives et l’économie créative dans les rapports officiels européens”.
    Rapport pour le département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication
    Philippe Bouquillion Professeur de sciences de l’information et de la communication à l’Université Paris 8 Jean-Baptiste Le Corf Doctorant en sciences de l’information et de la communication à l’Université Paris 8
    Centre d’étude des médias, des technologies et de l’internalisation Université Paris 8
    Mai 2010




“Turkey’s west-east gap ” – Sunday’s Zaman

author: Klaus Jurgens. Source : Sunday's Zaman

” As much as objective commentators are right to applaud Turkey’s rapid modernization process — think new roads, hospitals, schools, alignment with EU legislation, an emerging civil society, economic strength, regional political influence, its anticipated and soon to be drafted civilian constitution and so many other issues — we should not refrain from addressing one major obstacle which must be overcome before the entire length and width of the nation can be considered ready for the future: the quite considerable economic gap between Turkey’s east and its west. […]

This is further complicated by what in all modesty can only be described as ignorance on behalf of some segments of the Turkish public who live to the west of an imaginary divide linking Samsun with Ankara and Konya with Antalya. For them the Far East begins just beyond that line. A look at soap operas as broadcasted by nearly all Turkish television stations or advertisements for Turkish goods and services, which in most instances are shot with İstanbul as backdrop, underlines this assumption.”

Source: Sunday’s Zaman


Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search