SOME QUOTES FROM KEA REPORTS
- « Mapping the cultural and creative sectors in the EU and China »
A Working Paper in support to the development of an EU-China Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) platform
« Very few economic sectors have revealed as much economic potential in China and the EU as the cultural and creative industries (CCIs) have over the past few years. China is leading Asia in the development of a creative economy. Its cultural sector records € 50.32 billion of value added, contributes to 2.45% of Chinese GDP, registering growth 6.4% higher than growth of the general economy. European CCIs are worth 2.6% of the EU’s GDP and generate a turnover of more than € 654 billion (2003), much more than that generated by the car manufacturing industry (€ 271 billion in 2001) and by ICT manufacturers (€ 541 billion in 2003).
The insufficient enforcement of IPR, the lack of IP understanding as a tool to foster trade transactions, together with the size of the cultural operators – SMEs with little access to foreign markets – as well as the lack of political awareness on the economic importance of the creative industries, are the main structural reasons for insufficient trade relationships between Europe and China in the cultural and creative sectors.
Nevertheless CCIs are important drivers of innovation in other industries and societies. They contribute to tourism and the development of the ICT sector, which is hungry for content. Culture also contributes to social cohesion. The development of cultural industries and creativity is intrinsically linked with brand strategies. Today, competitiveness rests on the ability to create emotional ties with consumers that go beyond the price or the functionality of products. Aesthetic, meaning, social significance are key aspects of the experience economy. Culture, creative industries and intellectual property are key drivers of this intangible economy. » […]
- « The impact of culture on creativity »
prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture)
« It therefore becomes an imperative for industry to meet and to create new kinds of demand that are not based merely on the functionality of a product but are instead rooted in individual and collective aspiration. In this new paradigm, marketing and services are as important as production. This requires creative skills and thoughts as productivity gains at manufacturing level are no longer sufficient to establish a competitive advantage. Culture-based creativity is a powerful means of overturning norms and conventions with a view to standing out amid intense economic competition. Creative people and artists are key because they develop ideas, metaphors and messages which help to drive social networking and experiences. » […]
Creativity is a process continuously shaped and stimulated (or constrained) by human, social, cultural and institutional factors. It is proposed to establish a Creativity Index (with a set of 32 indicators) whose aim is to assess the creative environment in EU Member States and to enable the development of a creative ecology in Europe through art and culture. » […]
« The study on the contribution of culture to creativity was prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture). It demonstrates the impact of culture and art on creativity, a major factor of economic growth and a vector of social and technological innovation.
The assignment lasted 11 months between May 2008 and April 2009. It was managed by KEA European Affairs (KEA) a Brussels based consultancy which specialises in the cultural, media and entertainment sectors. For this assignment KEA set up a consortium composed of Burns Owens Partnership (BOP) and Professor Roberto Travaglini. »
The European Creativity Index (ECI) is a new statistical framework for illustrating and measuring the interplay of various factors that contribute to the growth of creativity in the European Union. As other indicators it measures the performance of a phenomenon using a set of indicators which highlight some of the key features of that phenomenon. It is inspired by existing indexes concerning creativity, innovation and economic performance but introduces elements that are more specifically related to arts and culture.
A focus on the cultural dimension of creativity implies taking into consideration a number of factors, many of which are usually not included in other indexes. These include, but are not limited to: education in art schools, cultural employment, cultural offering, cultural participation, technology penetration, regulatory and financial support to creation, economic contribution of creative industries. We group these indicators in six pillars of creativity :
Openness and diversity ; Social environment ; Human capital ; Creative outputs ; Technology ; Institutional environment
- « Economy of culture in Europe »
Study prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture)
[…] « The interdependence between the cultural & creative sector and ICT
Broadband penetration has grown exponentially over the last years and broadband uptake is continuing. The diffusion of wireless Internet connections and the mass adoption of 3G mobile phones have turned into a reality the promise of being connected “anywhere, anytime”. The switch-over from analogue to digital broadcasting has already happened (for radio) or is foreseen for the years to come (for TV).[…]
The growth of creative content and the expansion of the ICT sector are the two sides of a same coin.
Technology and in particular the growing diffusion and importance of the Internet is the major driver for growth in the creative media and Internet industry (provided the issue of piracy is properly addressed). The impact on media consumption has been huge in recent years and it will be the major factor for the sector in the future. At the same time creative content is a key driver for ICT uptake. The consultancy firm PriceWaterhouseCoopers estimates that spending on ICT-related content will account for 12% of total increase in global entertainment and media spending until 2009.[…]
Creative hubs and the contribution of culture and creativity to local development
Firstly, the characteristics of cultural and creative goods are that they cater essentially for a local audience, its languages and cultures. This makes it difficult for the production of cultural goods and services to shift to other continents. Therefore off-shoring is less developed than in other sectors of the economy (even at manufacturing level). Job losses in the cultural & creative sector tend to be the result of restructuring, for example due to new forms of distribution and the emergence of new business models. Because of this characteristic (non-delocalisation), and given that Europe is a major producer of intellectual property assets in the world, it would be well advised to try and make the most out of this potential to boost its economy.
Secondly, there is a competitive race to attract talent and creators (“the creative class”) to localised environments supporting the clustering of creativity and innovation skills. Europe risks experiencing a talent drain in sectors such as video games and cinema attracted abroad by better conditions, essentially financial.
Moreover, culture and innovation play a crucial role in helping regions attract investment, creative talents and tourism. Paradoxically, whereas we are living at a time where information technologies have abolished distance and time constraints, “physical location” and the “socialisation” factor remain decisive for economic success. The “location market” is a reality. Cities and regions are competing to attract foreign direct investment and creative talents. In order to succeed they need to attach several new strings to their bows: diversified cultural offerings, quality of life and life style. Culture has become an important soft location factor and a key factor for boosting local and regional attractiveness. » […]