Protégé : Istanbul et la production audiovisuelle turque : une approche territoriale (extrait)

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Reports : KEA


“Very few economic sectors have revealed as much economic potential in China and the EU as the cultural and creative industries (CCIs) have over the past few years. China is leading Asia in the development of a creative economy. Its cultural sector records € 50.32 billion of value added, contributes to 2.45% of Chinese GDP, registering growth 6.4% higher than growth of the general economy. European CCIs are worth 2.6% of the EU’s GDP and generate a turnover of more than € 654 billion (2003), much more than that generated by the car manufacturing industry (€ 271 billion in 2001) and by ICT manufacturers (€ 541 billion in 2003).

The insufficient enforcement of IPR, the lack of IP understanding as a tool to foster trade transactions, together with the size of the cultural operators – SMEs with little access to foreign markets – as well as the lack of political awareness on the economic importance of the creative industries, are the main structural reasons for insufficient trade relationships between Europe and China in the cultural and creative sectors.

Nevertheless CCIs are important drivers of innovation in other industries and societies. They contribute to tourism and the development of the ICT sector, which is hungry for content. Culture also contributes to social cohesion. The development of cultural industries and creativity is intrinsically linked with brand strategies. Today, competitiveness rests on the ability to create emotional ties with consumers that go beyond the price or the functionality of products. Aesthetic, meaning, social significance are key aspects of the experience economy. Culture, creative industries and intellectual property are key drivers of this intangible economy.” […]

“It therefore becomes an imperative for industry to meet and to create new kinds of demand that are not based merely on the functionality of a product but are instead rooted in individual and collective aspiration. In this new paradigm, marketing and services are as important as production. This requires creative skills and thoughts as productivity gains at manufacturing level are no longer sufficient to establish a competitive advantage. Culture-based creativity is a powerful means of overturning norms and conventions with a view to standing out amid intense economic competition. Creative people and artists are key because they develop ideas, metaphors and messages which help to drive social networking and experiences.” […]

Creativity is a process continuously shaped and stimulated (or constrained) by human, social, cultural and institutional factors. It is proposed to establish a Creativity Index (with a set of 32 indicators) whose aim is to assess the creative environment in EU Member States and to enable the development of a creative ecology in Europe through art and culture.” […]

“The study on the contribution of culture to creativity was prepared for the European Commission (Directorate-General for Education and Culture). It demonstrates the impact of culture and art on creativity, a major factor of economic growth and a vector of social and technological innovation.

The assignment lasted 11 months between May 2008 and April 2009. It was managed by KEA European Affairs (KEA) a Brussels based consultancy which specialises in the cultural, media and entertainment sectors. For this assignment KEA set up a consortium composed of Burns Owens Partnership (BOP) and Professor Roberto Travaglini.”

The European Creativity Index (ECI) is a new statistical framework for illustrating and measuring the interplay of various factors that contribute to the growth of creativity in the European Union. As other indicators it measures the performance of a phenomenon using a set of indicators which highlight some of the key features of that phenomenon. It is inspired by existing indexes concerning creativity, innovation and economic performance but introduces elements that are more specifically related to arts and culture.

A focus on the cultural dimension of creativity implies taking into consideration a number of factors, many of which are usually not included in other indexes. These include, but are not limited to: education in art schools, cultural employment, cultural offering, cultural participation, technology penetration, regulatory and financial support to creation, economic contribution of creative industries. We group these indicators in six pillars of creativity :

Openness and diversity ; Social environment ; Human capital ; Creative outputs ; Technology ; Institutional environment

[…] “The interdependence between the cultural & creative sector and ICT

Broadband penetration has grown exponentially over the last years and broadband uptake is continuing. The diffusion of wireless Internet connections and the mass adoption of 3G mobile phones have turned into a reality the promise of being connected “anywhere, anytime”. The switch-over from analogue to digital broadcasting has already happened (for radio) or is foreseen for the years to come (for TV).[…]

The growth of creative content and the expansion of the ICT sector are the two sides of a same coin.

Technology and in particular the growing diffusion and importance of the Internet is the major driver for growth in the creative media and Internet industry (provided the issue of piracy is properly addressed). The impact on media consumption has been huge in recent years and it will be the major factor for the sector in the future. At the same time creative content is a key driver for ICT uptake. The consultancy firm PriceWaterhouseCoopers estimates that spending on ICT-related content will account for 12% of total increase in global entertainment and media spending until 2009.[…]

Creative hubs and the contribution of culture and creativity to local development

Firstly, the characteristics of cultural and creative goods are that they cater essentially for a local audience, its languages and cultures. This makes it difficult for the production of cultural goods and services to shift to other continents. Therefore off-shoring is less developed than in other sectors of the economy (even at manufacturing level). Job losses in the cultural & creative sector tend to be the result of restructuring, for example due to new forms of distribution and the emergence of new business models. Because of this characteristic (non-delocalisation), and given that Europe is a major producer of intellectual property assets in the world, it would be well advised to try and make the most out of this potential to boost its economy.

Secondly, there is a competitive race to attract talent and creators (“the creative class”) to localised environments supporting the clustering of creativity and innovation skills. Europe risks experiencing a talent drain in sectors such as video games and cinema attracted abroad by better conditions, essentially financial.

Moreover, culture and innovation play a crucial role in helping regions attract investment, creative talents and tourism. Paradoxically, whereas we are living at a time where information technologies have abolished distance and time constraints, “physical location” and the “socialisation” factor remain decisive for economic success. The “location market” is a reality. Cities and regions are competing to attract foreign direct investment and creative talents. In order to succeed they need to attach several new strings to their bows: diversified cultural offerings, quality of life and life style. Culture has become an important soft location factor and a key factor for boosting local and regional attractiveness.” […]

“Gloomy Greeks forget woes with lavish Turk TV dramas” – Sabah

Source : Sabah

“When an Athens taxi driver learned his passenger was the boss of an Istanbul-based company that brings Turkish TV dramas to Greece he reached for his phone, called his wife and put her through to the man sitting in the back seat.

“She had to know what happens next,” Global Agency chief executive Izzet Pinto said with a laugh. “I was expecting success but not like this.”

It all began when crisis-stricken Greek TV channels realized soft that buying the glitzy tales of forbidden love, adultery, clan loyalties and betrayal from long-standing regional rival Turkey, was cheaper than filming their own.

The action-packed dramas quickly came to dominate the ratings despite the fact that they are broadcast in Turkish with only subtitles in Greek and have gained a devoted following among a Greek populace disheartened by the country’s biggest financial crisis in decades.

Local commentators even talk of a Turkish invasion, pointing to the history of enmity between the two countries who have been on brink of war on several occasions in the past.

Relations have warmed and natural disasters in both countries have brought them closer. But Greeks know little about the daily lives of urban Turks.

Panoramic views of Istanbul neighborhoods which were once home to large and vibrant Greek communities have also awakened a sense of nostalgia in Greeks for a place they refer to as “The City” or Constantinople.

“They remind me of a different era, of Greece in the 1960s when people dominated in life, not material things,” said 65-year-old Eleni Katsika, a dentist. “I watch them so I don’t get depressed.”

So fascinated are Greeks with the shows, that groups have started organizing trips to the island of Büyükada off the coast of Istanbul just to gawk at the set of one of the hit dramas, “Kismet.”


Between stamping passports in a packed Athens police station, a young officer keeps an eye fixed on a tiny portable TV on the edge of her desk showing repeats of the latest prime-time hit, “Aşk ve Ceza” (Love and Punishment).

TV ratings for the shows in the small country of 11 million reached 40 percent in the summer, knocked off the top spot only by the occasional Champions League soccer match. Major channels ANT1 and Mega competed by showing a drama each at 9 p.m. and re-runs in the late afternoon.

“I realized hatred is manufactured by the guys at the top,” said Angeliki Papathanasiou, a 21-year-old law student. “You don’t see the bad enemy, you see the real Turk who falls in love, who gets hurt, who is like us,” she said of the shows.

As a result, dozens of Greek fan pages on Facebook are peppered with Turkish words like “harika” (wonderful) and “guzel” (beautiful). Some Greek magazines have started giving away CDs for intensive Turkish lessons.

Some Turks find the Greek success of the shows difficult to fathom despite the proximity of the two countries, which in some areas are separated by just a few miles.

“It comes as a shock to me,” said Asli Tunc, a media professor at Istanbul’s Bilgi University. “Greeks need a new kind of entertainment to forget about their problems and these serials seem to meet that demand for now.”

They are also a trip down memory lane to days when the economy was better, traditions were cherished, shoe polishers worked every corner and the local grocery store was a point of reference.

“‘Ezel’ and the other series portray a lost dimension of Greek society that has been buried in recent years,” novelist Nikos Heiladakis wrote in a local newspaper article about the success of one crime drama. “It awakens in today’s Greek a lost identity,” he wrote.


In a way, the dramas are exporting Turkish culture, Global Agency’s Pinto said, even to a doubtful market like Greece.

“Greeks feel closer to Turks than they did,” he told Reuters. “Sometimes soft power is more important than political power.”

For the moment their grip on the audience remains strong and Pinto, whose company distributes three of the dramas to Greek TV and more than 30 other countries, expects to export about five or six dramas to Greece a year.

Next year will see the TV release of the controversial hit-series “Muhteşem Yüzyil” (Magnificent Century), based on 16th century sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, which so far has only been released as a DVD. Magazines selling DVDs of the episodes sell out within hours.

“I’ve not missed a single copy,” said Yiannis Panagoulis, a 40-year-old handyman. “At this rate I’m going to be speaking Turkish very soon. Who would’ve thought?” “

Source : Sabah

Reports : DCMS


These are the most recent statistics for the Creative Industries, published December 2011:

  • creative industries contributed 2.9% of the UK’s Gross Value Added in 2009, this is an increase from 2.8% in 2008
  • 1.5 million people are employed in the creative industries or in creative roles in other industries, 5.1% of the UK’s employment
  • exports of services by the creative industries accounted for 10.6% of the UK’s exports of services
  • there were an estimated 106,700 businesses in the creative industries on the Inter-Departmental Business Register (IDBR) in 2011, this represents 5.1% of all companies on the IDBR

Rapports : Union Européenne


“«Europe créative», nouveau programme-cadre pour les secteurs de la culture et de la création relevant du cadre financier pluriannuel (CFP) 2014-2020, réunira les actuels programmes Culture, MEDIA et MEDIA Mundus dans un cadre commun et établira une toute nouvelle facilité visant à améliorer l’accès au financement. […]


[…] “Les industries culturelles et créatives se caractérisent par une nature duale (qui les distingue de toute autre industrie), à la fois économique, par leur contribution en termes d’emploi, de croissance et de création de richesses, mais avant tout culturelle, par leurs activités qui contribuent à l’épanouissement et à l’intégration sociale et culturelle des citoyens. En encourageant la créativité et en innovant pour améliorer les processus de distribution et de production, ces industries jouent, dans l’Union européenne, un rôle majeur dans la promotion de la diversité culturelle et linguistique, du pluralisme, de la cohésion sociale et territoriale mais aussi dans la démocratisation de l’accès à la culture et la promotion du dialogue interculturel. À ce titre, rémunérer de manière juste la création grâce aux droits de propriété intellectuelle est une condition sine qua non à la préservation de la diversité culturelle européenne.

Aussi faut-il faciliter la mobilité et l’attractivité. En effet, promouvoir la mobilité des artistes, des praticiens de la culture et des œuvres est un moyen d’aider les industries culturelles et créatives européennes à passer notamment de l’échelon local à l’échelon national. Pour ce faire, il est nécessaire de s’employer à mettre en place des partenariats équilibrés avec les professionnels européens sur la base de mécanismes de concertation régulière pour suivre un secteur en évolution rapide, lever les freins à la mobilité et assurer une veille sur les outils développés à tous les niveaux.” […]

Extrait d’une interview de Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid du 14 février 2011 :

[…] “Ces industries représentent plus de 600 milliards d’euros de chiffre d’affaire par an, soit 2,6% du PIB, explique Marie-Thérèse Sanchez-Schmid, “et elles ne sont pas en récession. Aujourd’hui en Europe, et malgré la crise, les industries culturelles sont en croissance, en particulier, les industries du luxe.”

Ces industries très diverses jouissent d’un énorme potentiel, renforcé par les possibilités de diffusion qu’offre l’ère numérique. Mais ce potentiel n’est pas encore pleinement exploité, car ces industries “sont un peu trop cantonnées dans leurs états membres”, estime la députée.

L’union européenne peut aider à surmonter ces obstacles, par exemple grâce aux programmes comme MEDIA (financement pour l’industrie audiovisuelle) ou le Prix Lux du Parlement européen.” […]




[…] “As regards audiovisual policy, the Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) adopted a regulation in November 2009 that lifted the time restrictions for private broadcasters and allowed 24-hour broadcasting in languages other than Turkish. The Regulation also removed the subtitle/consecutive translation requirement, thus opening the way for live broadcasts. Limitations as regards children’s and language teaching programmes have also been lifted. As a consequence, the number of radio stations and TV channels broadcasting in languages other than Turkish has increased to 15 (5 TV channels and 10 radio stations), all of them broadcasting regionally.

The consultation forum with broadcasters continued, although on an irregular basis. RTÜK has reinforced its monitoring capacity by recruiting new staff who speak Kırmanji and Zaza. For the moment however, the monitoring of all local TV and radio broadcasts are carried out with the contributions of the monitoring units of the local police in line with a protocol that was first signed in 1998 and amended in 2006.

TRT became a shareholder in Euronews, whose Turkish service has been on air since January 2010, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Euronews in Turkish is distributed all over Turkey by TRT and is available on all distribution networks. In addition, TRT 2 is using Euronews programmes and the Turkish internet service also features Euronews programmes on demand.

In terms of alignment with the acquis, however, there has been no development. Media legislation is not yet aligned with the Audiovisual Media Services Directive. The draft law aiming to implement the directive was submitted to parliament in May 2010. RTÜK has not yet reallocated frequencies and the broadcasters have continued to use terrestrial frequencies on a de facto basis. The licensing deadlock continues to damage the broadcasting industry and also causes technical difficulties, such as significant interference, including cross-border, on both telecommunication systems and television and radio broadcasts. Switchover to digital would solve this problem, since Turkey adopted a roadmap on digital switchover in 2009, in line with the objective set by the European Commission for EU Member States.

The interpretation of certain articles of the broadcasting law and the sanctions imposed on broadcasters raised concerns. In June, RTÜK imposed a broadcasting ban on a channel for the words of a writer who spoke about the Armenian issue and which according to the regulator exceeded the limits of criticism.” […]

[…] “Proclamée en 1923, la République de Turquie, malgré une brève interruption entre 1960 et 1961, s’est apparentée à une démocratie parlementaire jusqu’en 1980, date à laquelle l’armée a pris le pouvoir. Le rétablissement d’un gouvernement civil en 1983 a permis le retour à la démocratie.

Depuis 1983 et la renaissance de la vie politique, plusieurs partis ou coalitions se sont succédé à la tête de l’exécutif.

En 1983, le Parti de la Mère Patrie (ANAP) remporte les premières élections libres depuis la prise de pouvoir par les militaires. Il s’agit d’un parti conservateur.

En octobre 1991, six mois après la fin de la guerre du Golfe à laquelle la Turquie a activement participé, le Parti de la Voie Juste (DYP) remporte les élections mais son leader, Soliman Demirel, est contraint de s’allier avec le Parti Populaire Social Démocrate (SHP). On a parlé là encore d’alliance conservatrice. Les bénéfices tirés de la guerre du Golfe ont permis d’intensifier pendant cette période la lutte contre le PKK (Parti des travailleurs kurdes) et de contrecarrer pour un temps les projets d’indépendance de la minorité kurde.

En juin 1993, le Premier ministre Soliman Demirel succède à Turgut Ozal à la présidence de la République de Turquie. Ce bouleversement à la tête de l’exécutif coïncide avec la montée en puissance du Parti Fondamentaliste Islamique (Refah) qui n’a de cesse de faire la preuve de sa crédibilité électorale entre 1993 et 1995, contraignant même le parti au pouvoir (DYP) à s’allier avec le parti de centre droit ANAP afin de barrer le passage aux islamistes lors des élections de décembre 1995.

Les mésententes entre les dirigeants des deux partis au pouvoir conduisent dès 1996 à la dissolution de l’alliance et à la constitution d’une nouvelle coalition entre le DYP et les islamistes du Refah. Necmettin Erbakan devient chef du gouvernement en juin 1996. Souffrant d’une relative méfiance de l’opinion et du manque d’appui des militaires du Conseil national de sécurité à l’influence politique et aux aspirations laïques affirmées, le Refah a eu le plus grand mal à mettre en application sa politique de repli vis-à-vis de l’OTAN et de l’Union européenne, en rupture avec les engagements pro-européens des gouvernements précédents.

Après trois années d’instabilité politique relative au cours desquelles six gouvernements se sont succédé et où tous les principaux partis, y compris le Refah, dissout malgré tout en 1998, ont eu l’occasion d’exercer le pouvoir, les élections anticipées d’avril 1999 consacrent le retour aux affaires du parti social démocrate de l’ex Premier ministre Bullent Ecevit qui met fin à des dizaines d’années d’hostilité entre son parti et le Parti Nationaliste, arrivé en deuxième place aux élections, en ouvrant la voie à une coalition entre les deux partis. L’arrestation du leader du PKK Abdullah Ocalan, vécue comme une grande victoire par l’opinion publique locale, a fait beaucoup pour la popularité du gouvernement Ecevit, qui a par ailleurs été confronté à la gestion des conséquences du terrible tremblement de terre de1999.

En mai 2000, après sept ans de présidence, Soliman Demirel cède sa place à l’ancien juge constitutionnel Ahmet Necdet Sezer, toujours Président à ce jour.

L’année 2002 consacre le retour en grâce des partis islamistes, Recep Erdogan (AK Parti) menant son mouvement à la victoire lors des élections du 3 novembre 2002. C’est la première fois qu’un parti islamiste gagne à la majorité absolue les élections depuis la création de la République de Turquie. Il n’a manqué que quatre voix au Parti AK pour obtenir la majorité des deux tiers qui permet de faire réviser la Constitution. Recep Erdogan s’est converti à l’Europe en cours de campagne.

Le 15 janvier 2003, la Turquie signe le protocole n°6 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, interdisant la peine de mort en temps de paix, ouvrant ainsi la voie à une intégration à l’Union européenne, la question des droits de l’homme motivant, entre autres, les réserves des pays membres.” […]



Voir aussi : 

  • “Les industries créatives et l’économie créative dans les rapports officiels européens”.
    Rapport pour le département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication
    Philippe Bouquillion Professeur de sciences de l’information et de la communication à l’Université Paris 8 Jean-Baptiste Le Corf Doctorant en sciences de l’information et de la communication à l’Université Paris 8
    Centre d’étude des médias, des technologies et de l’internalisation Université Paris 8
    Mai 2010




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